what is the capital city of south australia

Our capital city, Adelaide, is consistently ranked the fifth most liveable city in the world and is among the most affordable capital cities in Australia. Adelaide is South Australia's vibrant capital city and its economic, educational and cultural hub. The city is consistently voted one of the world's. Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia, has a history of cultural vision and social reform and is known internationally for its thriving arts.

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What is the capital city of south australia -

Adelaide is moving into the 'grey zone', and there's one thing that could fix it

For years, South Australia has faced an almost insurmountable problem — the lure of Melbourne.

Key points:

  • South Australia's population growth rate is almost half the national rate
  • The ageing population means Adelaide is the first mainland capital city to resemble a regional town
  • The state needs to attract a much higher proportion of overseas migrants to beat its ageing demographics

Generations of young people have left South Australia in search of adventure and work, with one third of the 28,926 people who moved interstate last year destined for Victoria.

As the fastest-growing city in Australia, Melbourne is booming, with its rapid speed of growth bringing its own challenges.

But Adelaide tells a different story, amid warnings it is for the first time entering a danger zone where the ageing demographics of the capital city means it is starting to look more like a regional town.

So, what's the solution?

The State Government is now pinning its hopes on a boost in migration from overseas, but how this can actually be achieved has so far eluded state governments.

That's despite past decades of migrants choosing to call South Australia home.

British expat Pauline Waters remembers her father's reaction 73 years ago, when he was told of her plans to move across the world from England to Australia to marry an Australian serviceman.

"He was devastated and, when I wasn't supposed to hear, I heard him say to my mother 'she might just as well bury us', because Australia in those days was so far away," she said.

An elderly woman in a dark lounge room

It took six weeks for theWorld War II hospital ship to reach Australia's shores, with her first home set among the orchards of South Australia's Riverland.

At 96, she is now the oldest person in her retirement village in Adelaide's leafy eastern suburbs, and the last surviving member of her group of British migrant friends.

"Adelaide has changed quite a lot — it was quieter, it's much, much more busy now," she said.

The Melbourne city skyline, looking over trams and the Princes Bridge.

While Adelaide may have changed over the decades since she arrived, shifts in its cultural make-up have been less pronounced; British migrants account forthe vast majority of overseas-born migrants at 6.6 per cent of the population, but their population is ageing.

The second wave of migrants from Greece and Italy are also getting older.

In Melbourne, English migrants have dropped to number three in the migrant mix at 3.2 per cent, with younger Indian migrants accounting for 3.8 per cent of the population and Chinese migrants follow closely behind at 3.7 per cent.

Into the 'grey zone'

Political commentator George Megalogenis said South Australia was behaving unlike other mainland states, after missing out on much of the third migration wave from South-East Asia.

It means Adelaide has an older population, placing it in the unenviable position of being the first mainland capital city starting to resemble a country town, he said.

"Adelaide is one of the first places on the mainland that's moving into what I call 'the grey zone' where people aged 65 and older start to outnumber kids aged under 15," he said.

"More retirees than children is usually the trigger … where you start to get an acceleration of ageing and this is the city's big challenge."

For Mr Megalogenis, Torrensville in Adelaide's inner-western suburbs, with its Greek and Italian influences still very apparent, brings strong memories of his adolescence growing up in Melbourne.

"It's nostalgic, but it still feels vibrant — this is the weird thing about it," he said.

"There's a time delay on this city.

"A time delay in a good way for someone from my background, but in a city generally you don't want to be living in a time delay forever because you don't want to be in a time warp.

"I think the challenge now is to make sure that — especially now we are seeing the beginnings of an Indian migration wave — the challenge is now to catch it."

State Government documents show one of the state's long-standing problems is its struggle to grow the population from within.

Its submission to the Council of Australian Governments(COAG) in February forecast the birthrate — the average number of children per woman — to remain at 1.76.

And over the next 10 years, it estimated there would be 3,500 more people who move interstate than arrive.

With the median age of migrants coming to Australia being 20 to 25, the Government is placing its hopes onimmigration to soften the economic impacts of the state's ageing population.

"Migration has to carry all of the load and it has to do proportionately more than it is doing in any other capital city in Australia," Mr Megalogenis said.

"Chinese and Indian migration dictate whether a city is vibrant, or it's not, and the good news is they are starting to move in.

"The bad news is Melbourne — Melbourne is still sucking most of the migrants that choose to come to the south-east corner of Australia.

"It is the fastest-growing city in Australia at the moment and the west of Melbourne is the fastest growing regional centre in Australia."

The Skyline of Adelaide looking south

'I want to stay forever'

Living in New Delhi and London, Nitin Chauhan, 31, spent long days in the office and faced a four-hour commute, but the arrival of his son Agastya prompted a reassessment of priorities.

"I want to work, but I also want to make sure that my family gets the life they have always been aiming for and I should get enough time to spend with my family," Mr Chauhan said.

While Adelaide was not the first destination Mr Chauhan considered, an invitation to apply for a state-sponsored visa was too tempting to resist.

"Sydney and Melbourne is a first preference from a migrant perspective, anyone wants to go there, but every city has their own challenges," he said.

History shows decentralising migration doesn't work

The idea of locating new migrants in regional Australia is not new and it's had mixed results over the years, so will the Government's new proposal be any different?

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"I was very nervous initially because coming from a big market of jobs, I had a settled life in India … my own house, a highly-paid job and was fully-accomplished, but then coming here had my own fears that maybe I'll not get a job in time, or I'll have to start at a lower level."

He was also concerned about stories told in India about Australian racism against migrants, something he said he had yet to see since arriving in Adelaide 18 months ago.

Within weeks of his arrival, Mr Chauhan landed a job with one of the big four banks, where he has since been promoted, and can work from home two days a week.

It is the simple things that have won the Chauhan family over — such as strangers saying hello on the street as they walk by.

"I've stayed in London, stayed in India, and stayed in other parts as well, but I think Adelaide is one of the best places to stay because firstly you can give enough time to your family, you can have time for yourself as well," he said.

"People here are really understanding, they are good, and you can interact with them."

Now, Mr Chauhan dreams of gaining permanent residency and furthering his career in the banking industry.

"I just want to stay here forever and see my family grow old and enjoy my life," he said.

This is part one of South Australia's Our Changing State series that looks at how SA is changing and the challenges it must overcome.

Источник: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-12-08/sas-eastern-states-exodus-continues-but-what-is-the-solution/11749922

What is the capital city South Australia?

Australia Selatan/Ibu kota

Is Adelaide a capital?

Adelaide is the capital city of South Australia, and is the fifth largest capital city in Australia. Consistently ranked as one of the top ten most liveable cities in the world, and ranked third in 2021, Adelaide is a popular destination for international students in Australia.

What are the 8 capital cities in Australia?

Australia mainland state/territory capitals are: Brisbane (Queensland), Canberra (Australian Capital Territory), Darwin (Northern Territory), Hobart (Tasmania), Melbourne (Victoria), Perth (Western Australia), and Sydney (New South Wales). Capital city of Australia is Canberra.

Why is it called South Australia?

The state is named after the London-founded South Australian Company that, in 1836, set up shop in Kingscote on Kangaroo Island. The city was named in her honour in 1836, just a year before King William’s death. TASMANIA. Abel Tasman was not the best at naming states.

What was South Australia originally called?

Colony of South Australia (1834 – 1901) In fact, South Australia was called a province rather than a colony, to help distinguish it from other colonies that had transportation in their histories. With Federation on 1 January 1901, it became the State of South Australia.

Why is Adelaide called Radelaide?

It’s often noted, those in Adelaide speak with a slightly posh accent compared to other parts of Australia, and some have suggested this is due to the fact that Adelaide is the only capital city in Australia, that was not founded with convicts.

Is Adelaide boring?

That being said, Adelaide is a brilliant place to live and a lot of young people simply don’t want to leave, myself included. It doesn’t have as much entertainment/nightlife as other cities, but it isn’t boring. It’s called the “festival state” as there’s festivals nearly all year round.

Which is Australia’s largest city?

Population: 5.3m Sydney is Australia’s largest city and accounted for nearly 80 per cent of New South Wales total population growth over the year.

What is the nickname for South Australia?

‘Crow-eaters’ for South Australians is still commonly used, and refers to the magpie on the coat of arms. ‘Top Enders’ for those from the Northern Territory is heard occasionally.

Why South Australia is the best?

Our relaxed yet prosperous and affordable lifestyle, ease of travel, low population density, safety, and abundance of cultural and leisure activities, makes South Australia one of the great boutique regions of the world.

What is the oldest town in South Australia?

Gawler is the oldest country town on the Australian mainland in the state of South Australia. It was named after the second Governor (British Vice-Regal representative) of the colony of South Australia, George Gawler.

What do you call a person from Adelaide?

Adelaide’s inhabitants are known as Adelaideans.

Is Adelaide a boring place to live?

What is Adelaide best known for?

South Australia’s capital city of Adelaide is known for its festivals, incredible food and premium wine regions just a short drive from the centre of town. With a packed events calendar and some of the country’s best restaurants and small bars, there’s always something exciting happening in Adelaide.

Источник: https://answerstoall.com/technology/what-is-the-capital-city-south-australia/

Australian Capital Territory Tours, Vacation Packages & Travel Experiences

Our Australian Capital Territory Tours 

Australian Capital Territory is a territory in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales. It is the smallest self-governing internal territory in Australia. Its most populous city is Canberra, the country's capital, which makes an easy addition to an Australia vacation bound for Sydney or Melbourne.

Australian Capital Territory Vacation Highlights


Canberra is an attractive planned city, known as ‘a city in a park,’ steeped in national history and culture. It is surrounded by mountain ranges and hills covered in bush land. It is also almost totally surrounded by the beautiful Lake Burley Griffin. The impressive Parliament Building stands out on the summit of Capital Hill. On trips to Australia, Canberra is also a city of festivals for all seasons such as Floriade when the city celebrates springtime by filling Commonwealth Park with thousands of blooms across artistic flower beds. For food and wine lovers, follow Poachers Way Trail to discover the 140 vineyards and 33 wineries located around the nearby countryside.

Museums and Galleries 

One imposing site and one of Canberra’s most iconic attractions is the War Memorial which pays homage to Australia’s military history. There is also an excellent selection of art galleries and museums. Some of the major ones of interest are the National Gallery of Australia, the Questacon Science Centre and the Mount Stromlo Observatory.

Parks and Trails

For the more active on Australian tours, try the mountain trails at Mount Stromlo or Brindabella National Park in the heart of the Australian Alps, or follow the Yerrabi Walking Track with views of the Bimberi Peak and its undisturbed ecosystems. You can find kangaroos and wallabies here while exploring wetlands and wildflower-cloaked plains. Namadgi National Park is perfect for rock climbing, hiking, horseback riding as well as the bush land city of Canberra Nature Park.

C’mon say G’day Downunder. Book one of our Australia vacations today and start exploring! 

Australia Travel Information

At Goway we believe that a well-informed traveller is a safer traveller. With this in mind, we have compiled an easy to navigate travel information section dedicated to Australia vacations. 

Learn about the history and culture of Australia, the must-try food and drink, and what to pack in your suitcase. Read about Australia's nature and wildlife, weather and geography, along with 'Country Quickfacts' compiled by our travel experts. Our globetrotting tips, as well as our visa and health information will help ensure you're properly prepared for a safe and enjoyable trip. The only way you could possibly learn more is by embarking on your journey and discovering Australia for yourself. Start exploring...book one of our Australia vacations today!

Extend Your Stay

Consider an additional stopover to your Australia vacation at one of Goway's South Pacific destinations. You can choose from  our selection of New Zealand vacation packages, Tahiti vacation packages or stay at one of our Fiji resorts or perhaps take a Cook Island vacation. This can be done stopping over en route to or from Australia.


Источник: https://www.goway.com/trips/dest/australia-and-south-pacific/cntry/australia/st/australian-capital-territory/

Australia’s capital cities are home to 67% of the entire population of the country.

Australia’s capital cities are home to 67% of the entire population of the country, so whichever one you go to, you’ll be in great company. But how do you choose?

This exciting city is so much more than its bridge, zoo and opera house. But if you’re interested in doing more than just the usual touristy things, why not have a look at:
● Bondi Icebergs Pool. This pool is the most photographed ocean pool in Australia, and it just so happens to be at Sydney’s most famous beach. This 50m saltwater pool has been a Bondi landmark for over 100 years, and if you want to do as the locals do and become a member, you have to swim there three sundays a month for five years.
● Sydney Opera House backstage tour. Access the areas only the stars get to go and tread the boards of one of the world’s most iconic theatres.
● Strand Arcade. If shopping is more your thing, the Strand Arcade (opened in 1892) is well worth a visit. This beautiful arcade houses some of Australia’s premium fashion designers.

Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, has been crowned the world’s most liveable city four years in a row.
● Browse the sheds at Queen Victoria Market. The open air market is a popular destination for locals to buy their fresh produce, fruit and vegetables and meat as well as dairy and other delicatables.
● Gorge on cheap dumplings in Chinatown. Melbourne’s Chinatown has been around since the 1860s and to this day it is regarded as the place to go for noodles, wontons, bao and dumplings.
● Take a day trip to the Yarra Valley. Just an hour from the CBD, Yarra Valley is famous for producing some of the world’s most popular wines. Wineries are open every weekend and the winery restaurants are fast gaining a reputation for the place to eat outside of the city.

The capital of South Australia is a vibrant city with a rich, sophisticated heritage with plenty to attract both culture vultures and gourmands alike. Fun fact: South Australia was the only convict-free colony. It was established as a free settlement and populated with voluntary emigration.
● Visit Rundle Mall, Adelaide’s main shopping street, for some great shopping and impressive architecture.
● Visit the National Wine Centre. Situated just outside of the city’s botanic gardens, the centre has a bar boasting Australia’s largest wine tasting room, with over 120 different wines available for sampling

Perth is Australia’s only capital city on the Indian Ocean.
● Visit the historic seaside port of Fremantle just thirty minutes from Perth’s centre.
● Cruise the Swan River as it carves its way through the middle of the city before joining with the sea.

The Northern Territory’s unhurried capital, Darwin, has balmy nights, unusual characters and a plethora of outdoor adventures. You’ll discover strong Aboriginal cultures here, as evidenced by the variety of languages spoken in the streets. The city is also influenced by its proximity to Asia meaning you’ll find an energetic food scene and night markets.


Источник: https://www.johnmason.com/australia/australias-capital-cities/

South Australia

State of Australia

For the southern region of Australia, see Southern Australia. For other uses, see South Australia (disambiguation).

"South Australian" redirects here. For the 1838–1851 newspapers, see The South Australian. For the sailing ship, see South Australian (clipper ship).

State in Australia

South Australia


The Festival State
The Wine State

Location of South Australia in Australia

Location of South Australia in Australia

Coordinates: 30°S135°E / 30°S 135°E / -30; 135Coordinates: 30°S135°E / 30°S 135°E / -30; 135
Country Australia
South Australia Act 183415 August 1834
Declared as Province19 February 1836
Commencement of colonial government28 December 1836
Responsible government22 April 1857
Federation1 January 1901
Australia Act3 March 1986
Capital and Largest cityAdelaide
Administration74 Local government areas,
49 Counties (cadastral units)
 • TypeConstitutional monarchy, Parliamentary democracy
 • BodyGovernment of South Australia
 • GovernorFrances Adamson
 • PremierSteven Marshall (Liberal)
LegislatureParliament of South Australia

Legislative Council (22 seats)

House of Assembly (47 seats)
Federal representationParliament of Australia
 • Total1,044,353 km2 (403,227 sq mi)
 • Land984,321 km2 (380,048 sq mi)
 • Water60,032 km2 (23,178 sq mi)
Area rank4th
Highest elevation

(Mount Woodroffe)

1,435 m (4,708 ft)
Lowest elevation

(Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre)

−16 m (−52 ft)
 • Total1,771,703
 • Rank5th
 • Density1.7/km2 (4.4/sq mi)
 • Density rank6th
Demonym(s)South Australians, Croweater (colloquial),[2] South Aussie
Time zonesUTC+09:30 (ACST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+10:30 (ACDT)
UTC+08:45 (ACWSTBorder Village)
Postal code


ISO 3166 codeAU-SA
GSP year2019–20
GSP ($A million)$108,334[3] (5th)
GSP per capita$61,582 (7th)
MammalSouthern hairy-nosed wombat
(Lasiorhinus latifrons)
BirdPiping shrike (Australian magpie)
FishLeafy seadragon
(Phycodurus eques)
FlowerSturt's Desert Pea
(Swainsona formosa)
FossilSpriggina floundersi
MineralBornite, Opal as Gem
ColourRed, blue, and gold

South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest by population. It has a total of 1.77 million people,[1] and its population is the second most highly centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small; Mount Gambier, the second-largest centre, has a population of 28,684.

South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, as well as the Northern Territory; it is bordered to the west by Western Australia, to the north by the Northern Territory, to the north-east by Queensland, to the east by New South Wales, to the south-east by Victoria, and to the south by the Great Australian Bight.[4] The state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along the south-eastern coast and River Murray. The state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a freely settled, planned British province,[5] rather than as a convict settlement. Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree.[6]

As with the rest of the continent, the region has a long history of human occupation by numerous tribes and languages. The South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded.[7] The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield that was later employed by the New Zealand Company.[8] The goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for its fine wine and numerous cultural festivals. The state's economy is dominated by the agricultural, manufacturing and mining industries.


Main article: History of South Australia

European settlers with Aborigines, 1850

Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain. In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peatbog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited long before the island was cut off by rising sea levels.[9] According to mitochondrial DNA research, Aboriginal people reached Eyre Peninsula 49,000-45,000 years ago from both the east (clockwise, along the coast, from northern Australia) and the west (anti-clockwise).[10]: 189 

The first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen, examined and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the Hon. Pieter Nuyts, one of the Councillors of India.[11]

The coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet later named the Port Adelaide River which was first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and later accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners' 'First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia.

The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included almost two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west. It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward.

On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834 (Foundation Act), which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia. The act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, and it would be convict-free.[12]

In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province. The Letters Patent,[13] which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."[13] Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants, it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters.[14] Despite strong reference to the rights of the native population in the initial proclamation by the Governor, there were many conflicts and deaths in the Australian Frontier Wars in South Australia.

Nicolas Baudin, who mapped the coastline of South Australia, along with Matthew Flinders

Survey was required before settlement of the province, and the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its 'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, and with then planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections.

Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, and obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists.

The company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until the official site of the capital was selected by William Light, where the City of Adelaide is currently located. The first immigrants arrived at Holdfast Bay (near the present day Glenelg) in November 1836.

The commencement of colonial government was proclaimed on 28 December 1836, now known as Proclamation Day.

South Australia is the only Australian state to have never received British convicts. Another free settlement, Swan River colony was established in 1829 but Western Australia later sought convict labour, and in 1849 Western Australia was formally constituted as a penal colony. Although South Australia was constituted such that convicts could never be transported to the Province, some emancipated or escaped convicts or expirees made their own way there, both prior to 1836, or later, and may have constituted 1–2% of the early population.[15]

The plan for the province was that it would be an experiment in reform, addressing the problems perceived in British society. There was to be religious freedom and no established religion. Sales of land to colonists created an Emigration Fund to pay the costs of transferring a poor young labouring population to South Australia. In early 1838 the colonists became concerned after it was reported that convicts who had escaped from the eastern states may make their way to South Australia. The South Australia Police was formed in April 1838 to protect the community and enforce government regulations. Their principal role was to run the first temporary gaol, a two-room hut.[16]

The current flag of South Australia was adopted on 13 January 1904, and is a British blue ensign defaced with the state badge. The badge is described as a piping shrike with wings outstretched on a yellow disc. The state badge is believed to have been designed by Robert Craig of Adelaide's School of Design.


Main article: Geography of South Australia

Satellite image of eastern South Australia. Note the dry lakes (white patches) in the north.

The terrain consists largely of arid and semi-arid rangelands, with several low mountain ranges. The most important (but not tallest) is the Mount Lofty-Flinders Ranges system, which extends north about 800 kilometres (500 mi) from Cape Jervis to the northern end of Lake Torrens. The highest point in the state is not in those ranges; Mount Woodroffe (1,435 metres (4,708 ft)) is in the Musgrave Ranges in the extreme northwest of the state.[17] The south-western portion of the state consists of the sparsely inhabited Nullarbor Plain, fronted by the cliffs of the Great Australian Bight. Features of the coast include Spencer Gulf and the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas that surround it.

The principal industries and exports of South Australia are wheat, wine and wool.[18] More than half of Australia's wines are produced in the South Australian wine regions which principally include Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, McLaren Vale, Coonawarra, the Riverland and the Adelaide Hills. See South Australian wine.

South Australian boundaries[edit]

Further information: South Australian borders

South Australia has boundaries with every other Australian mainland state and territory except the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory. The Western Australia border has a history involving the South Australian government astronomer, G.F. Dodwell, and the Western Australian Government Astronomer, H.B. Curlewis, marking the border on the ground in the 1920s.

In 1863, that part of New South Wales to the north of South Australia was annexed to South Australia, by letters patent, as the "Northern Territory of South Australia", which became shortened to the Northern Territory (6 July 1863).[19] The Northern Territory was handed to the federal government in 1911 and became a separate territory.

According to Australian maps, South Australia's south coast is flanked by the Southern Ocean, but official international consensus defines the Southern Ocean as extending north from the pole only to 60°S or 55°S, at least 17 degrees of latitude further south than the most southern point of South Australia. Thus the south coast is officially adjacent to the south-most portion of the Indian Ocean. See Southern Ocean: Existence and definitions.


Climate types in South Australia

The southern part of the state has a Mediterranean climate, while the rest of the state has either an arid or semi-arid climate.[20] South Australia's main temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July. The highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January 1960, which is also the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum temperature was −8.2 °C (17.2 °F) at Yongala on 20 July 1976.[21]

Climate data for South Australia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 50.7
Record low °C (°F) 0.2
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[22]


See also: Australian economy

South Australia's average annual employment for 2009–10 was 800,600 persons, 18% higher than for 2000–01.[25] For the corresponding period, national average annual employment rose by 22%.[25]

South Australia's largest employment sector is health care and social assistance,[24][26] surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07.[24][26] In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance.[24] Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment.[25]

The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce.[25]

The manufacturing industry plays an important role in South Australia's economy, generating 11.7%[24] of the state's gross state product (GSP) and playing a large part in exports. The manufacturing industry consists of automotive (44% of total Australian production, 2006) and component manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, defence technology (2.1% of GSP, 2002–03) and electronic systems (3.0% of GSP in 2006). South Australia's economy relies on exports more than any other state in Australia.[citation needed][27]

Wheat fields at Nuriootpa. Agriculture is a large industry for the state.

State export earnings stood at $10 billion per year[when?][citation needed] and grew by 8.8% from 2002 to 2003. Production of South Australian food and drink (including agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, fisheries and manufacturing) is a $10 billion industry.[when?][citation needed]

South Australia's credit rating was upgraded to AAA by Standard & Poor's in September 2004 and to AAA by Moody's in November 2004, the highest credit ratings achievable by any company or sovereign. The state had previously lost these ratings in the State Bank collapse. However, in 2012 Standard & Poor's downgraded the state's credit rating to AA+ due to declining revenues, new spending initiatives and a weaker than expected budgetary outlook.[28]

South Australia's Gross State Product was $48.9 billion starting 2004, making it $32,996 per capita. Exports for 2006 were valued at $9.0bn with imports at $6.2bn. Private Residential Building Approvals experienced 80% growth over the year of 2006.[citation needed]

South Australia's economy includes the following major industries: meat and meat preparations, wheat, wine, wool and sheepskins, machinery, metal and metal manufactures, fish and crustaceans, road vehicles and parts, and petroleum products. Other industries, such as education and defence technology, are of growing importance.[when?][citation needed]

South Australia receives the least amount of federal funding for its local road network of all states on a per capita and a per kilometre basis.[29]

In 2013, South Australia was named by CommSec as the second lowest performing economy in Australia.[30] While some sources have pointed at weak retail spending and capital investment, others have attributed poor performance to declines in public spending.[30][31]

During 2019-20: South Australia’s gross state product (GSP) fell 1.4% in chain volume (real) terms (nationally, gross domestic product (GDP) fell 0.3%).[32]


Main article: Energy in South Australia

South Australia has the lead over other Australian states for its commercialisation and commitment to renewable energy. It is now the leading producer of wind power in Australia.[33] Renewable energy is a growing source of electricity in South Australia, and there is potential for growth from this particular industry of the state's economy. The Hornsdale Power Reserve is a bank of grid-connected batteries adjacent to the Hornsdale Wind Farm in South Australia's Mid-North region. At the time of construction in late 2017, it was billed as the largest lithium-ion battery in the world.[34]

Olympic Dam[edit]

The Olympic Dam mine near Roxby Downs in northern South Australia is the largest deposit of uranium in the world, possessing more than a third of the world's low-cost recoverable reserves and 70% of Australia's. The mine, owned and operated by BHP, presently accounts for 9% of global uranium production.[35][36] The Olympic Dam mine is also the world's fourth-largest remaining copper deposit, and the world's fifth largest gold deposit.[37] There was a proposal to vastly expand the operations of the mine, making it the largest open-cut mine in the world,[38] but in 2012 the BHP Billiton board decided not to go ahead with it at that time due to then lower commodity prices.[39]

Crown land[edit]

Crown land held in right of South Australia is managed under the Crown Land Management Act 2009.


Main article: Government of South Australia

South Australia is a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Australia as sovereign, and the Governor of South Australia as her representative.[40] It is a state of the Commonwealth of Australia. The bicameralParliament of South Australia consists of the lower house known as the House of Assembly and the upper house known as the Legislative Council. General elections are held every four years, the last being the 2018 election.

Initially, the Governor of South Australia held almost total power, derived from the letters patent of the imperial government to create the colony. He was accountable only to the British Colonial Office, and thus democracy did not exist in the colony. A new body was created to advise the governor on the administration of South Australia in 1843 called the Legislative Council.[41] It consisted of three representatives of the British Government and four colonists appointed by the governor. The governor retained total executive power.

In 1851, the Imperial Parliament enacted the Australian Colonies Government Act, which allowed for the election of representatives to each of the colonial legislatures and the drafting of a constitution to properly create representative and responsible government in South Australia. Later that year, propertied male colonists were allowed to vote for 16 members on a new 24 seat Legislative Council. Eight members continued to be appointed by the governor.

Old Parliament House in 1872

The main responsibility of this body was to draft a constitution for South Australia. The body drafted the most democratic constitution ever seen in the British Empire and provided for universal manhood suffrage.[42] It created the bicameral Parliament of South Australia. For the first time in the colony, the executive was elected by the people, and the colony used the Westminster system, where the government is the party or coalition that exerts a majority in the House of Assembly. The Legislative Council remained a predominantly conservative chamber elected by property owners.

Women's suffrage in Australia took a leap forward – enacted in 1895 and taking effect from the 1896 colonial election, South Australia was the first in Australia and only the second in the world after New Zealand to allow women to vote, and the first in the world to allow women to stand for election.[43] In 1897 Catherine Helen Spence was the first woman in Australia to be a candidate for political office when she was nominated to be one of South Australia's delegates to the conventions that drafted the constitution. South Australia became an original state of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.

Although the lower house had universal suffrage, the upper house, the Legislative Council, remained the exclusive domain of property owners until the Labor government of Don Dunstan managed to achieve reform of the chamber in 1973. Property qualifications were removed and the Council became a body elected via proportional representation by a single state-wide electorate.[44] Since the following 1975 South Australian state election, no one party has had control of the state's upper house with the balance of power controlled by a variety of minor parties and independents.

Local government[edit]

South Australia is divided into 74 local government areas. Local councils are responsible for functions delegated by the South Australian parliament, such as road infrastructure and waste management. Council revenue comes mostly from property taxes and government grants.


See also: Demographics of Australia and List of cities in South Australia by population

Estimated resident population since 1981
Adelaideis the largest metropolitan area in the state.

As at March 2018 the population of South Australia was 1,733,500.[1] A majority of the state's population lives within Greater Adelaide's metropolitan area which had an estimated population of 1,333,927 in June 2017.[45] Other significant population centres include Mount Gambier (29,505),[46]Victor Harbor-Goolwa (26,334),[46]Whyalla (21,976),[46]Murray Bridge (18,452),[46]Port Lincoln (16,281),[46]Port Pirie (14,267),[46] and Port Augusta (13,957).[46]

Ancestry and immigration[edit]

Birthplace[N 1]Population
New Zealand12,937
South Africa6,610

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were:[N 2][49]

28.9% of the population was born overseas at the 2016 census. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from England (5.8%), India (1.6%), China (1.5%), Italy (1.1%) and Vietnam (0.9%).[47][48]

2% of the population, or 34,184 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.[N 4][47][48]


At the 2016 census, 78.2% of the population spoke only English at home. The other languages most commonly spoken at home were Italian (1.7%), Standard Mandarin (1.7%), Greek (1.4%) Vietnamese (1.1%), and Cantonese (0.6%).[47][48]


At the 2016 census, overall 53.9% of responses identified some variant of Christianity. 9% of respondents chose not to state a religion. The most commonly nominated responses were 'No Religion' (35.4%), Catholicism (18%), Anglicanism (10%) and Uniting Church (7.1%).[47][48]


See also: Education in South Australia

Primary and secondary[edit]

See also: List of schools in South Australia

On 1 January 2009, the school leaving age was raised to 17 (having previously been 15 and then 16).[51] Education is compulsory for all children until age 17, unless they are working or undergoing other training. The majority of students stay on to complete their South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE). School education is the responsibility of the South Australian government, but the public and private education systems are funded jointly by it and the Commonwealth Government.

The South Australian Government provides, to schools on a per student basis, 89 percent of the total Government funding while the Commonwealth contributes 11 percent. Since the early 1970s it has been an ongoing controversy[52] that 68 percent of Commonwealth funding (increasing to 75% by 2008) goes to private schools that are attended by 32% of the states students.[53] Private schools often refute this by saying that they receive less State Government funding than public schools, and in 2004 the main private school funding came from the Australian government, not the state government.[54]

On 14 June 2013, South Australia became the third Australian state to sign up to the Australian Federal Government's Gonski Reform Program. This will see funding for primary and secondary education to South Australia increased by $1.1 billion before 2019.[55]


There are three public and four private universities in South Australia. The three public universities are the University of Adelaide (established 1874, third oldest in Australia), Flinders University (est. 1966) and the University of South Australia (est. 1991). The four private universities are Torrens University Australia (est. 2013), Carnegie Mellon University - Australia (est. 2006), University College London's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and Cranfield University. All six have their main campus in the Adelaide metropolitan area: Adelaide and UniSA on North Terrace in the city; CMU, UCL and Cranfield are co-located on Victoria Square in the city, and Flinders at Bedford Park.

Vocational education[edit]

Main article: TAFE South Australia

Tertiary vocational education is provided by a range of Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) which are regulated at Commonwealth level. The range of RTOs delivering education include public, private and 'enterprise' providers i.e. employing organisations who run an RTO for their own employees or members.

The largest public provider of vocational education is TAFE South Australia which is made up of colleges throughout the state, many of these in rural areas, providing tertiary education to as many people as possible. In South Australia, TAFE is funded by the state government and run by the South Australian Department of Further Education, Employment, Science and Technology (DFEEST). Each TAFE SA campus provides a range of courses with its own specialisation.


Main article: Transport in South Australia

Major highways in South Australia

Historical transport in South Australia[edit]

After settlement, the major form of transport in South Australia was ocean transport. Limited land transport was provided by horses and bullocks. In the mid 19th century, the state began to develop a widespread rail network, although a coastal shipping network continued until the post war period.

Roads began to improve with the introduction of motor transport. By the late 19th century, road transport dominated internal transport in South Australia.


South Australia has four interstate rail connections, to Perth via the Nullarbor Plain, to Darwin through the centre of the continent, to New South Wales through Broken Hill, and to Melbourne–which is the closest capital city to Adelaide.

Rail transport is important for many mines in the north of the state.

The capital Adelaide has a commuter rail network made of electric and diesel electric powered multiple units, with 6 lines between them.


South Australia has extensive road networks linking towns and other states. Roads are also the most common form of transport within the major metropolitan areas with car transport predominating. Public transport in Adelaide is mostly provided by buses and trams with regular services throughout the day.

Air transport[edit]

Adelaide Airport provides regular flights to other capitals, major South Australian towns and many international locations. The airport also has daily flights to several Asian hub airports. Adelaide Metro[56] buses J1 and J1X connect to the city (approx. 30 minutes travel time). Standard fares apply and tickets may be purchased from the driver. Maximum charge (September 2016) for Metroticket is $5.30; off-peak and seniors discounts may apply.

River transport[edit]

The River Murray was formerly an important trade route for South Australia, with paddle steamers linking inland areas and the ocean at Goolwa.

Sea transport[edit]

South Australia has a container port at Port Adelaide. There are also numerous important ports along the coast for minerals and grains.

The passenger terminal at Port Adelaide periodically sees cruise liners.

Kangaroo Island is dependent on the Sea Link ferry service between Cape Jervis and Penneshaw.

Cultural life[edit]

See also: Adelaide § Cultural life, Department of the Premier and Cabinet (South Australia) § Arts and culture, and List of festivals in Australia § South Australia

South Australia has been known as "the Festival State" for many years, for its abundance of arts and gastronomic festivals.[57] While much of the arts scene is concentrated in Adelaide, the state government has supported regional arts actively since the 1990s. One of the manifestations of this was the creation of Country Arts SA, created in 1992.[58]

Diana Laidlaw did much to further the arts in South Australia during her term as Arts Minister from 1993 to 2002, and after Mike Rann assumed government in 2002, he created a strategic plan in 2004 (updated 2007) which included furthering and promoting the arts in South Australia under the topic heading "Objective 4: Fostering Creativity and Innovation".[59][60]

In September 2019, with the arts portfolio now subsumed within the Department of the Premier and Cabinet (DPC) after the election of Steven Marshall as Premier, and the 2004 strategic plan having been deleted from the website in 2018,[61] the "Arts and Culture Plan, South Australia 2019–2024" was created by the department.[62] Marshall said when launching the plan: “The arts sector in South Australia is already very strong but it’s been operating without a plan for 20 years”.[63] However the plan does not signal any new government support, even after the government's A$31.9 million cuts to arts funding when Arts South Australia was absorbed into DPC in 2018. Specific proposals within the plan include an “Adelaide in 100 Objects” walking tour, a new shared ticketing system for small to medium arts bodies, a five-year-plan to revitalise regional art centres, creation of an arts-focussed high school, and a new venue for the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra.[64]


Main article: Sport in South Australia


An AFL match between the Port Adelaide Power and the Adelaide Crows

Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in South Australia, with South Australians having the highest attendance rate in Australia.[65]

South Australia fields two teams in the Australian Football League (AFL) national competition: the Adelaide Football Club and Port Adelaide Football Club. As of 2015 the two clubs were in the top five in terms of membership numbers, with both clubs' membership figures reaching over 60,000.[citation needed] Both teams have used the Adelaide Oval as their home ground since 2014, having previously used Football Park (AAMI Stadium).

The South Australian National Football League (SANFL), which was the premier league in the state before the advent of the Australian Football League, is a popular local league comprising ten teams: Sturt, Port Adelaide, Adelaide, West Adelaide, South Adelaide, North Adelaide, Norwood, Woodville/West Torrens, Glenelg and Central District.

The South Australian Amateur Football League comprises 68 member clubs playing over 110 matches per week across ten senior divisions and three junior divisions. The SAAFL is one of Australia's largest and strongest Australian rules football associations.[66]


Cricket is the most popular summer sport in South Australia and attracts big crowds. South Australia has a cricket team, the West End Redbacks, who play at Adelaide Oval in the Adelaide Park Lands during the summer; they won their first title since 1996 in the summer of 2010–11. Many international matches have been played at the Adelaide Oval; it was one of the host cities of 2015 Cricket World Cup, and for many years it hosted the Australia Day One Day International. South Australia is also home to the Adelaide Strikers, an Australian men's professional Twenty20 cricket team, that competes in Australia's domestic Twenty20 cricket competition, the Big Bash League.


Adelaide United represents South Australia in soccer in the men's A-League and women's W-League. The club's home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium (Coopers Stadium), but occasionally plays games at the Adelaide Oval.

The club was founded in 2003 and are the 2015–16 season champions of the A-League. The club was also premier in the inaugural 2005–06 A-League season, finishing 7 points clear of the rest of the competition, before finishing 3rd in the finals. Adelaide United was also a Grand Finalist in the 2006–07 and 2008–09 seasons. Adelaide is the only A-League club to have progressed past the group stages of the Asian Champions League on more than one occasion.[67]

Adelaide City remains South Australia's most successful club, having won three National Soccer League titles and three NSL Cups. City was the first side from South Australia to ever win a continental title when it claimed the 1987 Oceania Club Championship and it has also won a record 17 South Australian championships and 17 Federation Cups.

West Adelaide became the first South Australian club to be crowned Australian champion when it won the 1978 National Soccer League title. Like City, it now competes in the National Premier Leagues South Australia and the two clubs contest the Adelaide derby.


Basketball also has a big following in South Australia, with the Adelaide 36ers playing in the Adelaide Entertainment Centre. The 36ers have won four championships in the last 20 years in the National Basketball League. The Adelaide Entertainment Centre, located in Hindmarsh, is the home of basketball in the state.

Mount Gambier also has a national basketball team – the Mount Gambier Pioneers. The Pioneers play at the Icehouse (Mount Gambier Basketball Stadium) which seats over 1,000 people and is also home to the Mount Gambier Basketball Association. The Pioneers won the South Conference in 2003 and the Final in 2003; this team was rated second in the top five teams to have ever played in the league. In 2012, the club entered its 25th season, with a roster of 10 senior players (two imports) and three development squad players.

Motor sport[edit]

Australia's premier motor sport series, the Supercars Championship, has visited South Australia each year since 1999. South Australia's Supercars event, the Adelaide 500, is staged on the Adelaide Street Circuit, a temporary track laid out through the streets and parklands to the east of the Adelaide city centre. Attendance for the 2010 event totalled 277,800.[68] An earlier version of the Adelaide Street Circuit played host to the Australian Grand Prix, a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship, each year from 1985 to 1995.

Mallala Motor Sport Park, a permanent circuit located near the town of Mallala, 58 km north of Adelaide, caters for both state and national level motor sport throughout the year.

The Bend Motorsport Park, is another permanent circuit, located just outside of Tailem Bend.[69]

Other sports[edit]

Sixty-three percent of South Australian children took part in organised sports in 2002–2003.[70]

The ATP Adelaide was a tennis tournament held from 1972 to 2008 that then moved to Brisbane and was replaced with The World Tennis Challenge a Professional Exhibition Tournament that is part of the Australian Open Series. Also, the Royal Adelaide Golf Club has hosted nine editions of the Australian Open, with the most recent being in 1998.

The state has hosted the Tour Down Under cycle race since 1999.[71]


South Australian cities, towns, settlements and road network


Main article: Crime in South Australia

Crime in South Australia is managed by the South Australia Police (SAPOL), various state and federal courts in the criminal justice system and the state Department for Correctional Services, which administers the prisons and remand centre.

Crime statistics for all categories of offence in the state are provided on the SAPOL website, in the form of rolling 12-month totals.[72] Crime statistics from the 2017–18 national ABS Crime Victimisation Survey show that between the years 2008–09 and 2017–18, the rate of victimisation in South Australia declined for assault and most household crime types.[73]

In 2013 Adelaide was ranked the safest capital city in Australia.[74]

See also[edit]

Food and drink[edit]



  1. ^In accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics source, England, Scotland, China] and the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau are listed separately
  2. ^As a percentage of 1,227,355 persons who nominated their ancestry at the 2016 census.
  3. ^The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who nominate "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group.[50]
  4. ^ abOf any ancestry. Includes those identifying as Aboriginal Australians or Torres Strait Islanders. Indigenous identification is separate to the ancestry question on the Australian Census and persons identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander may identify any ancestry.


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  4. ^Most Australians describe the body of water south of the continent as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean as officially defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In the year 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60 degrees south latitude.
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  6. ^Anderson, Margaret. "The first reading of the proclamation". SA History Hub. History Trust of South Australia. Retrieved 5 September 2021.
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  8. ^"The Wakefield Model of Systematic Colonisation in South Australia". University of South Australia. 2008.[permanent dead link]
  9. ^R.J. Lampert (1979): Aborigines. In Tyler, M.J., Twidale, C.R. & Ling, J.K. (Eds) Natural History of Kangaroo Island. Royal Society of South Australia Inc. ISBN 0-9596627-1-5
  10. ^Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2020), Revivalistics: From the Genesis of Israeli to Language Reclamation in Australia and Beyond, Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199812790 / ISBN 9780199812776
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  13. ^ ab"Documenting Democracy".
  14. ^Ngadjuri Walpa Juri Lands and Heritage Association (n.d.). Gnadjuri. SASOSE Council Inc. ISBN .
  15. ^Sendziuk, P. (2012): No convicts here: reconsidering South Australia's foundation myth. In: Foster, R. & Sendziuk, P. (Eds.) Turning points: chapters in South Australian history. Wakefield Press. ISBN 978 1 74305 119 1
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Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Australia

Population of Cities in Australia (2021)

Australia's cities are located within its six states: New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria and Queesland. Each state's government is led by the Premier, and the parliament of each state can pass laws for anything not controlled by the Commonwealth. Ten Australian territories are located beyond the state borders. The mainland is made up of two territories and an offshore territory, as well as seven territories that are governed by the Commonwealth. Some of the country's external territories, including the Australian Antarctic Territory which covers 42% of Antarctica, are uninhabited.

When the Australian census is taken to get official population numbers and demographics, the national figures cover six states, three territories, Cocos Islands and Christmas Island. The most populous cities are located within New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria, while the islands have populations that fall below 5,000 people. Like other countries around the world, Australia has a mix of urban, suburban and rural areas. According to statistics in 2014, around 10% of the population lived in rural towns, showing a decrease from previous years as residents are moving to the bigger cities for job opportunities and immigrants are more apt to move to the larger cities that are found within the country. There is no correlation between the area of states and territories and population. For example, Victoria is the smallest mainland state but is the second most populous, and the area includes one of the country's most populated cities, Melbourne.

Источник: https://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/cities/australia

Adelaide, South Australia

Welcome to www.kidcyber.com.au, a website established in 1999 for primary students and teachers.

We provide:

Easy to understand text for student research, including material for primary school students K-6
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The writers and publishers of kidcyber are Shirley Sydenham, a primary teacher, and Ron Thomas, a primary teacher-librarian. We are authors (together, individually and with others) of numerous books for teachers and kids, published in Australia and overseas. Recent books written together include Using the Library 1, 2 & 3; Thinking Through Themes (4 titles: Air, Fire, Water, Earth); and The Perfect School Project, published by and available at Teaching Solutions.

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