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World Bank

International financial institution

Not to be confused with World Bank Group.

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects.[5] It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group.

The World Bank's most recently stated goal is the reduction of poverty.[6]

World Bank Group[edit]

The World Bank Group is an extended family of five international organizations, and the parent organization of the World Bank, the collective name given to the first two listed organizations, the IBRD and the IDA:

History[edit]

The World Bank was created at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference, along with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The president of the World Bank is traditionally an American.[8] The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D.C., and work closely with each other.

The Gold Room at the Mount Washington Hotelwhere the International Monetary Fund and World Bank were established

Although many countries were represented at the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and United Kingdom were the most powerful in attendance and dominated the negotiations.[9]: 52–54  The intention behind the founding of the World Bank was to provide temporary loans to low-income countries that could not obtain loans commercially.[6] The Bank may also make loans and demand policy reforms from recipients.[6]

1944–1974[edit]

In its early years the Bank made a slow start for two reasons: it was underfunded, and there were leadership struggles between the US Executive Director and the president of the organization. When the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries. Until 1968, its loans were earmarked for the construction of infrastructure works, such as seaports, highway systems, and power plants, that would generate enough income to enable a borrower country to repay the loan. In 1960, the International Development Association was formed (as opposed to a UN fund named SUNFED), providing soft loans to developing countries.

Before 1974, the reconstruction and development loans the World Bank made were relatively small. Its staff was aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. Fiscal conservatism ruled, and loan applications had to meet strict criteria.[9]: 56–60 

The first country to receive a World Bank loan was France. The Bank's president at the time, John McCloy, chose France over two other applicants, Poland and Chile. The loan was for US$250 million, half the amount requested, and came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments. World Bank staff closely monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. In addition, before the loan was approved, the United States State Department told the French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed. The French government complied and removed the Communistcoalition government—the so-called tripartite. Within hours, the loan to France was approved.[10]

1974–1980[edit]

From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people in the developing world. The size and number of loans to borrowers greatly increased, as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and other sectors.[11]

These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, who was appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson.[9]: 60–63  McNamara implored bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the northern banks that had been the primary sources of funding. Rotberg used the global bond market to increase the capital available to the bank.[12] One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rapid rise of Third World debt. From 1976 to 1980, developing world debt rose at an average annual rate of 20%.[13][14]

The World Bank Administrative Tribunal was established in 1980, to decide on disputes between the World Bank Group and its staff where allegation of non-observance of contracts of employment or terms of appointment had not been honored.[15]

1980–1989[edit]

McNamara was succeeded by US PresidentJimmy Carter's nominee, Alden W. Clausen, in 1980.[16][17] Clausen replaced many members of McNamara's staff and crafted a different mission emphasis. His 1982 decision to replace the bank's Chief Economist, Hollis B. Chenery, with Anne Krueger was an example of this new focus. Krueger was known for her criticism of development funding and for describing Third World governments as "rent-seeking states".

During the 1980s the bank emphasized lending to service Third-World debt, and structural adjustment policies designed to streamline the economies of developing nations. UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for "reduced health, nutritional and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, and Africa".[18]

1989–present[edit]

Beginning in 1989, in response to harsh criticism from many groups, the bank began including environmental groups and NGOs in its loans to mitigate the past effects of its development policies that had prompted the criticism.[9]: 93–97  It also formed an implementing agency, in accordance with the Montreal Protocols, to stop ozone-depletion damage to the earth's atmosphere by phasing out the use of 95% of ozone-depleting chemicals, with a target date of 2015. Since then, in accordance with its so-called "Six Strategic Themes", the bank has put various additional policies into effect to preserve the environment while promoting development. For example, in 1991 the bank announced that to protect against deforestation, especially in the Amazon, it would not finance any commercial logging or infrastructure projects that harm the environment.

In order to promote global public goods, the World Bank tries to control communicable diseases such as malaria, delivering vaccines to several parts of the world, and joining combat forces. In 2000 the bank announced a "war on AIDS" and in 2011 the Bank joined the Stop Tuberculosis Partnership.[19]

Traditionally, based on a tacit understanding between the United States and Europe, the president of the World Bank has been selected from candidates nominated by the United States. This is significant because the World Bank tends to lend more readily to countries that are friendly with the United States, not because of direct U.S. influence but because of the employees of the World Bank.[20] In 2012, for the first time, two non-US citizens were nominated.

On 23 March 2012, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that the United States would nominate Jim Yong Kim as the next president of the Bank.[21] Jim Yong Kim was elected on 27 April 2012 and reelected to a second five-year term in 2017. He announced that he would resign effective 1 February 2019.[22] He was replaced on an interim basis by now-former World Bank CEO Kristalina Georgieva, then by David Malpass on 9 April 2019.

Amid the global fight with the COVID-19 pandemic, in September 2020 the World Bank announced a $12 billion plan to supply "low and middle income countries" with a vaccine once it is approved. The plan is set to affect over two billion people.[23]

Criteria[edit]

Various developments brought the Millennium Development Goals targets for 2015 within reach in some cases. For the goals to be realized, six criteria must be met: stronger and more inclusive growth in Africa and fragile states, more effort in health and education, integration of the development and environment agendas, more as well as better aid, movement on trade negotiations, and stronger and more focused support from multilateral institutions like the World Bank.[24]

  1. Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger: From 1990 through 2004 the proportion of people living in extreme poverty fell from almost a third to less than a fifth. Although results vary widely within regions and countries, the trend indicates that the world as a whole can meet the goal of halving the percentage of people living in poverty. Africa's poverty, however, is expected to rise, and most of the 36 countries where 90% of the world's undernourished children live are in Africa. Less than a quarter of countries are on track for achieving the goal of halving under-nutrition.
  2. Achieve Universal Primary Education: The percentage of children in school in developing countries increased from 80% in 1991 to 88% in 2005. Still, about 72 million children of primary school age, 57% of them girls, were not being educated as of 2005[update].
  3. Promote Gender Equality: The tide is turning slowly for women in the labor market, yet far more women than men—worldwide more than 60%—are contributing but unpaid family workers. The World Bank Group Gender Action Plan was created to advance women's economic empowerment and promote shared growth.
  4. Reduce Child Mortality: There is some improvement in survival rates globally; accelerated improvements are needed most urgently in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. An estimated 10 million-plus children under five died in 2005; most of their deaths were from preventable causes.
  5. Improve Maternal Health: Almost all of the half-million women who die during pregnancy or childbirth every year live in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. There are numerous causes of maternal death that require a variety of health care interventions to be made widely accessible.
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases: Annual numbers of new HIV infections and AIDS deaths have fallen, but the number of people living with HIV continues to grow. In the eight worst-hit southern African countries, prevalence is above 15 percent. Treatment has increased globally, but still meets only 30 percent of needs (with wide variations across countries). AIDS remains the leading cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa (1.6 million deaths in 2007). There are 300 to 500 million cases of malaria each year, leading to more than 1 million deaths. Nearly all the cases and more than 95 percent of the deaths occur in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability: Deforestation remains a critical problem, particularly in regions of biological diversity, which continues to decline. Greenhouse gas emissions are increasing faster than energy technology advancement.
  8. Develop a Global Partnership for Development: Donor countries have renewed their commitment. Donors have to fulfill their pledges to match the current rate of core program development. Emphasis is being placed on the Bank Group's collaboration with multilateral and local partners to quicken progress toward the MDGs' realization.

Environmental and Social Safeguards[edit]

To ensure that World Bank-financed operations do not compromise these goals but instead add to their realisation, the following environmental, social, and legal safeguards were defined: Environmental Assessment, Indigenous Peoples, Involuntary Resettlement, Physical Cultural Resources, Forests, Natural Habitats, Pest Management, Safety of Dams, Projects in Disputed Areas, Projects on International Waterways, and Performance Standards for Private Sector Activities.[25]

At the World Bank's 2012 annual meeting in Tokyo, a review of these safeguards was initiated, which was welcomed by several civil society organisations.[26] As a result, the World Bank developed a new Environmental and Social Framework, which has been in implementation since 1 October 2018.[27]

Leadership[edit]

The President of the Bank is the president of the entire World Bank Group. The president is responsible for chairing meetings of the boards of directors and for overall management of the Bank. Traditionally, the president of the Bank has always been a U.S. citizen nominated by the United States, the largest shareholder in the bank (the managing director of the International Monetary Fund having always been a European). The nominee is subject to confirmation by the board of executive directors to serve a five-year, renewable term. While most World Bank presidents have had banking experience, some have not.[28][29]

The vice presidents of the Bank are its principal managers, in charge of regions, sectors, networks and functions. There are two executive vice presidents, three senior vice presidents, and 24 vice presidents.[30]

The boards of directors consist of the World Bank Group president and 25 executive directors. The president is the presiding officer, and ordinarily has no vote except to break a tie. The executive directors as individuals cannot exercise any power or commit or represent the Bank unless the boards specifically authorized them to do so. With the term beginning 1 November 2010, the number of executive directors increased by one, to 25.[31]

[edit]

Name Dates Nationality Previous work
Eugene Meyer1946–1946 United StatesNewspaper publisher and Chairman of the Federal Reserve
John J. McCloy1947–1949 United StatesLawyer and US Assistant Secretary of War
Eugene R. Black, Sr.1949–1963 United StatesBank executive with Chase and executive director with the World Bank
George Woods1963–1968 United StatesBank executive with First Boston Corporation
Robert McNamara1968–1981 United StatesPresident of the Ford Motor Company, US Defense Secretary under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson
Alden W. Clausen1981–1986 United StatesLawyer, bank executive with Bank of America
Barber Conable1986–1991 United StatesNew York State Senator and US Congressman
Lewis T. Preston1991–1995 United StatesBank executive with J.P. Morgan
James Wolfensohn1995–2005 United States and  AustraliaWolfensohn was a naturalised American citizen before taking office. Corporate lawyer and banker
Paul Wolfowitz2005–2007 United StatesUS Ambassador to Indonesia, US Deputy Secretary of Defense, Dean of the School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University, a prominent architect of 2003 invasion of Iraq, resigned World Bank post due to ethics scandal[32]
Robert Zoellick2007–2012 United StatesDeputy Secretary of State and US Trade Representative
Jim Yong Kim2012–2019 United States and  South KoreaFormer Chair of the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard, president of Dartmouth College, naturalized American citizen[33]
Kristalina Georgieva2019 BulgariaFormer European Commissioner for the Budget and Human Resources and 2010's "European of the Year"
David Malpass2019–present United StatesUnder Secretary of the Treasury for International Affairs

Chief Economists[edit]

Main article: World Bank Chief Economist

Politics[edit]

One notable politicians who worked for World Bank includes former Afghanistan president, Ashraf Ghani.[40] A mid-level employee, Fakhruddin Ahmed was the chief adviser of the interim Government of Bangladesh during the political crisis of 2006-2008.[41]

Members[edit]

Main article: List of World Bank members

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) has 189 member countries, while the International Development Association (IDA) has 173. Each member state of IBRD should also be a member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and only members of IBRD are allowed to join other institutions within the Bank (such as IDA).[2] The five United Nations member states that are not members of the World Bank are Andorra, Cuba, Liechtenstein, Monaco, and North Korea. Kosovo is not a member of the UN, but is a member of the IMF and the World Bank Group, including the IBRD and IDA.

Voting power[edit]

In 2010 voting powers at the World Bank were revised to increase the voice of developing countries, notably China. The countries with most voting power are now the United States (15.85%), Japan (6.84%), China (4.42%), Germany (4.00%), the United Kingdom (3.75%), France (3.75%), India (2.91%),[42] Russia (2.77%), Saudi Arabia (2.77%) and Italy (2.64%). Under the changes, known as 'Voice Reform – Phase 2', countries other than China that saw significant gains included South Korea, Turkey, Mexico, Singapore, Greece, Brazil, India, and Spain. Most developed countries' voting power was reduced, along with a few developing countries such as Nigeria. The voting powers of the United States, Russia and Saudi Arabia were unchanged.[43][44]

The changes were brought about with the goal of making voting more universal in regards to standards, rule-based with objective indicators, and transparent among other things. Now, developing countries have an increased voice in the "Pool Model", backed especially by Europe. Additionally, voting power is based on economic size in addition to the International Development Association contributions.[45]

List of 20 largest countries by voting power in each World Bank institution[edit]

The following table shows the subscriptions of the top 20 member countries of the World Bank by voting power in the following World Bank institutions as of December 2014 or March 2015: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the International Development Association (IDA), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). Member countries are allocated votes at the time of membership and subsequently for additional subscriptions to capital (one vote for each share of capital stock held by the member).[46][47][48][49]

RankCountryIBRDCountryIFCCountryIDACountryMIGA
World2,201,754World2,653,476World24,682,951World218,237
1United States358,498United States570,179United States2,546,503United States32,790
2Japan166,094Japan163,334Japan2,112,243Japan9,205
3China107,244Germany129,708United Kingdom1,510,934Germany9,162
4Germany97,224France121,815Germany1,368,001France8,791
5France87,241United Kingdom121,815France908,843United Kingdom8,791
6United Kingdom87,241India103,747Saudi Arabia810,293China5,756
7India67,690Russia103,653India661,909Russia5,754
8Saudi Arabia67,155Canada82,142Canada629,658Saudi Arabia5,754
9Canada59,004Italy82,142Italy573,858India5,597
10Italy54,877China62,392China521,830Canada5,451
11Russia54,651Netherlands56,931Poland498,102Italy5,196
12Spain42,948Belgium51,410Sweden494,360Netherlands4,048
13Brazil42,613Australia48,129Netherlands488,209Belgium3,803
14Netherlands42,348Switzerland44,863Brazil412,322Australia3,245
15Korea36,591Brazil40,279Australia312,566Switzerland2,869
16Belgium36,463Mexico38,929Switzerland275,755Brazil2,832
17Iran34,718Spain37,826Belgium275,474Spain2,491
18Switzerland33,296Indonesia32,402Norway258,209Argentina2,436
19Australia30,910Saudi Arabia30,862Denmark231,685Indonesia2,075
20Turkey26,293Korea28,895Pakistan218,506Sweden2,075

Poverty reduction strategies[edit]

For the poorest developing countries in the world, the bank's assistance plans are based on poverty reduction strategies; by combining an analysis of local groups with an analysis of the country's financial and economic situation the World Bank develops a plan pertaining to the country in question. The government then identifies the country's priorities and targets for the reduction of poverty, and the World Bank instigates its aid efforts correspondingly.

Forty-five countries pledged US$25.1 billion in "aid for the world's poorest countries", aid that goes to the World Bank International Development Association (IDA), which distributes the loans to eighty poorer countries. Wealthier nations sometimes fund their own aid projects, including those for diseases. Robert B. Zoellick, the former president of the World Bank, said when the loans were announced on 15 December 2007, that IDA money "is the core funding that the poorest developing countries rely on".[50]

World Bank organizes the Development Marketplace Awards, a grant program that surfaces and funds development projects with potential for development impact that are scalable and/or replicable. The grant beneficiaries are social enterprises with projects that aim to deliver social and public services to groups with the lowest incomes.

Global partnerships and initiatives[edit]

The World Bank has been assigned temporary management responsibility of the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), focused on making renewable energy cost-competitive with coal-fired power as quickly as possible, but this may not continue after UN's Copenhagen climate change conference in December 2009, because of the Bank's continued investment in coal-fired power plants.[51] (In December 2017, Kim announced the World Bank would no longer finance fossil fuel development.)

Together with the World Health Organization, the World Bank administers the International Health Partnership (IHP+). IHP+ is a group of partners committed to improving the health of citizens in developing countries. Partners work together to put international principles for aid effectiveness and development cooperation into practice in the health sector. IHP+ mobilizes national governments, development agencies, civil society, and others to support a single, country-led national health strategy in a well-coordinated way.

Climate change[edit]

World Bank President Jim Yong Kim said in 2012:

A 4-degree warmer world can, and must be, avoided—we need to hold warming below 2 degrees ... Lack of action on climate change threatens to make the world our children inherit a completely different world than we are living in today. Climate change is one of the single biggest challenges facing development, and we need to assume the moral responsibility to take action on behalf of future generations, especially the poorest.[52]

A World Bank report into climate change in 2012 noted that (p. xiii) "even with the current mitigation commitments and pledges fully implemented, there is roughly a 20 percent likelihood of exceeding 4 °C by 2100." This is despite the fact that the "global community has committed itself to holding warming below 2 °C to prevent 'dangerous' climate change". Furthermore, "a series of recent extreme events worldwide highlight the vulnerability of all countries ... No nation will be immune to the impacts of climate change."[53]

The World Bank doubled its aid for climate change adaptation from $2.3bn (£1.47bn) in 2011 to $4.6bn in 2012. The planet is now 0.8 °C warmer than in pre-industrial times. It says that 2 °C warming will be reached in 20 to 30 years.[54][55]

In December 2017, Kim announced the World Bank would no longer finance fossil fuel development,[56][57] but a 2019 International Consortium of Investigative Journalists article found that the Bank continues "to finance oil and gas exploration, pipelines and refineries," that "these fossil fuel investments make up a greater share of the bank's current energy lending portfolio than renewable projects," and that the Bank "has yet to meaningfully shift away from fossil fuels."[58]

EU finance ministers joined civil sector groups, including Extinction Rebellion, in November 2019 in calling for an end to World Bank funding of fossil fuels.[59][60][61]

In 2021, the World Bank offered support to Kazakhstan to help the country in its mission for decarbonization and carbon neutrality. [62]

Food security[edit]

Main article: Food security

  1. Global Food Security Program: Launched in April 2010, six countries alongside the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have pledged $925 million for food security. To date, the program has helped eight countries, promoting agriculture, research, trade in agriculture, etc.
  2. Launched Global Food Crisis Response Program: Given grants to approximately 40 nations for seeds, etc. for improving productivity.
  3. In process of increasing its yearly spending for agriculture to $6–8 billion from earlier $4 billion.
  4. Runs various nutrition programs across the world, e.g., vitamin A doses for children, school meals, etc.[63]

Training wings[edit]

Global Operations Knowledge Management Unit[edit]

The World Bank Institute (WBI) was a "global connector of knowledge, learning and innovation for poverty reduction". It aimed to inspire change agents and prepare them with essential tools that can help achieve development results. WBI had four major strategies to approach development problems: innovation for development, knowledge exchange, leadership and coalition building, and structured learning. World Bank Institute (WBI) was formerly known as Economic Development Institute (EDI), established on 11 March 1955 with the support of the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations. The purpose of the institute was to provide an open place where senior officials from developing countries could discuss development policies and programs. Over the years, EDI grew significantly and in 2000, the institute was renamed as the World Bank Institute. Sanjay Pradhan is the past Vice President of the World Bank Institute.[64] As of 2019, World Bank Institute functions have been mostly encapsulated by a new unit Global Operations Knowledge Management Unit (GOKMU), which is now responsible for knowledge management and learning across the Bank.

Global Development Learning Network[edit]

The Global Development Learning Network (GDLN) is a partnership of over 120 learning centers (GDLN Affiliates) in nearly 80 countries around the world. GDLN Affiliates collaborate in holding events that connect people across countries and regions for learning and dialogue on development issues.

GDLN clients are typically NGOs, government, private sector, and development agencies who find that they work better together on subregional, regional, or global development issues using the facilities and tools offered by GDLN Affiliates. Clients also benefit from the ability of Affiliates to help them choose and apply these tools effectively and to tap development practitioners and experts worldwide. GDLN Affiliates facilitate around 1000 video conference-based activities a year on behalf of their clients, reaching some 90,000 people worldwide. Most of these activities bring together participants in two or more countries over a series of sessions. A majority of GDLN activities are organized by small government agencies and NGOs.

GDLN Asia Pacific[edit]

The GDLN in the East Asia and Pacific region has experienced rapid growth and Distance Learning Centers now operate or are planned in 20 countries: Australia, Mongolia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Japan, Papua New Guinea, South Korea, Thailand, Laos, Timor Leste, Fiji, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and New Zealand. With over 180 Distance Learning Centers, it is the largest development learning network in the Asia and Pacific region. The Secretariat Office of GDLN Asia Pacific is located in the Center of Academic Resources of Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

GDLN Asia Pacific was launched at the GDLN's East Asia and Pacific regional meeting held in Bangkok from 22 to 24 May 2006. Its vision is to become "the premier network exchanging ideas, experience and know-how across the Asia Pacific Region". GDLN Asia Pacific is a separate entity to The World Bank. It has endorsed its own Charter and Business Plan and, in accordance with the Charter, a GDLN Asia Pacific Governing Committee has been appointed.

The committee comprises China (2), Australia (1), Thailand (1), The World Bank (1), and finally, a nominee of the Government of Japan (1). The organization is currently hosted by Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand, a founding member of the GDLN Asia Pacific.

The Governing Committee has determined that the most appropriate legal status for the GDLN AP in Thailand is a "Foundation". The World Bank is engaging a solicitor in Thailand to process all documentation in order to obtain this status.

GDLN Asia Pacific is built on the principle of shared resources among partners engaged in a common task, and this is visible in the organizational structures that exist, as the network evolves. Physical space for its headquarters is provided by the host of the GDLN Centre in Thailand – Chulalongkorn University; Technical expertise and some infrastructure is provided by the Tokyo Development Learning Centre (TDLC); Fiduciary services are provided by Australian National University (ANU) Until the GDLN Asia Pacific is established as a legal entity in Thailand, ANU, has offered to assist the governing committee, by providing a means of managing the inflow and outflow of funds and of reporting on them. This admittedly results in some complexity in contracting arrangements, which need to be worked out on a case-by-case basis and depends to some extent on the legal requirements of the countries involved.

JUSTPAL Network[edit]

A Justice Sector Peer-Assisted Learning (JUSTPAL) Network was launched in April 2011 by the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) Department of the World Bank's Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region. JUSTPAL's objective is to provide an online and offline platform for justice professionals to exchange knowledge, good practices, and peer-driven improvements to justice systems and thereby support countries to improve their justice sector performance, quality of justice, and service delivery to citizens and businesses.

The JUSTPAL Network includes representatives of judiciaries, ministries of justice, prosecutors, anti-corruption agencies, and other justice-related entities from across the globe. It has active members from more than 50 countries.

To facilitate fruitful exchange of reform experiences and sharing of applicable good practices, JUSTPAL has organized its activities under five Communities of Practice (COPs): Budgeting for the Justice Sector; Information Systems for Justice Services; Justice Sector Physical Infrastructure; Court Management and Administration; and Prosecution and Anti-Corruption Agencies.

Country assistance strategies[edit]

As a guideline to the World Bank's operations in any particular country, a Country Assistance Strategy is produced in cooperation with the local government and any interested stakeholders and may rely on analytical work performed by the Bank or other parties.

Clean Air Initiative[edit]

Clean Air Initiative (CAI) is a World Bank initiative to advance innovative ways to improve air quality in cities through partnerships in selected regions of the world by sharing knowledge and experiences. It includes electric vehicles.[65] Initiatives like this help address and tackle pollution-related diseases.

United Nations Development Business[edit]

Based on an agreement between the United Nations and the World Bank in 1981, Development Business became the official source for World Bank Procurement Notices, Contract Awards, and Project Approvals.[66]

In 1998, the agreement was renegotiated, and included in this agreement was a joint venture to create an online version of the publication. Today, Development Business is the primary publication for all major multilateral development banks, U.N. agencies, and several national governments, many of which have made the publication of their tenders and contracts in Development Business a mandatory requirement.[66]

The World Bank or the World Bank Group is also a sitting observer in the United Nations Development Group.[67]

Open data initiative[edit]

The World Bank collects and processes large amounts of data and generates them on the basis of economic models. These data and models have gradually been made available to the public in a way that encourages reuse,[68] whereas the recent publications describing them are available as open access under a Creative Commons Attribution License, for which the bank received the SPARC Innovator 2012 award.[69]

The World Bank also endorses the Principles for Digital Development.[70]

Grants table[edit]

The following table lists the top 15 DAC 5 Digit Sectors[71] to which the World Bank has committed funding, as recorded in its International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) publications. The World Bank states on the IATI Registry website that the amounts "will cover 100% of IBRD and IDA development flows" but will not cover other development flows.[72]

Committed funding (US$ millions)
SectorBefore 20072007200820092010201120122013201420152016Sum
Road transport 4,654.2 1,993.5 1,501.8 5,550.3 4,032.3 2,603.7 3,852.5 2,883.6 3,081.7 3,922.6 723.7 34,799.8
Social/ welfare services 613.1 208.1 185.5 2,878.4 1,477.4 1,493.2 1,498.5 2,592.6 2,745.4 1,537.7 73.6 15,303.5
Electrical transmission/ distribution 1,292.5 862.1 1,740.2 2,435.4 1,465.1 907.7 1,614.9 395.7 2,457.1 1,632.2 374.8 15,177.8
Public finance management 334.2 223.1 499.7 129.0 455.3 346.6 3,156.8 2,724.0 3,160.5 2,438.9 690.5 14,158.6
Rail transport 279.3 284.4 1,289.0 912.2 892.5 1,487.4 841.8 740.6 1,964.9 1,172.2 −1.6 9,862.5
Rural development 335.4 237.5 382.8 616.7 2,317.4 972.0 944.0 177.8 380.9 1,090.3 −2.5 7,452.4
Urban development and management 261.2 375.9 733.3 739.6 542.1 1,308.1 914.3 258.9 747.3 1,122.1 212.2 7,214.9
Business support services and institutions 113.3 20.8 721.7 181.4 363.3 514.0 310.0 760.1 1,281.9 1,996.0 491.3 6,753.7
Energy policy and administrative management 102.5 243.0 324.9 234.2 762.0 654.9 902.1 480.5 1,594.2 1,001.8 347.9 6,648.0
Agricultural water resources 733.2 749.5 84.6 251.8 780.6 819.5 618.3 1,040.3 1,214.8 824.0 −105.8 7,011.0
Decentralisation and support to subnational government 904.5 107.9 176.1 206.7 331.2 852.8 880.6 466.8 1,417.0 432.5 821.3 6,597.3
Disaster prevention and preparedness 66.9 2.7 260.0 9.0 417.2 609.5 852.9 373.5 1,267.8 1,759.7 114.2 5,733.5
Sanitation - large systems 441.9 679.7 521.6 422.0 613.1 1,209.4 268.0 55.4 890.6 900.8 93.9 6,096.3
Water supply - large systems 646.5 438.1 298.3 486.5 845.1 640.2 469.0 250.5 1,332.4 609.9 224.7 6,241.3
Health policy and administrative management 661.3 54.8 285.8 673.8 1,581.4 799.3 251.5 426.3 154.8 368.1 496.0 5,753.1
Other 13,162.7 6,588.3 8,707.1 11,425.7 17,099.5 11,096.6 16,873.4 13,967.1 20,057.6 21,096.5 3,070.3 140,074.5
Total 24,602.6 13,069.4 17,712.6 27,152.6 33,975.6 26,314.8 34,248.6 27,593.9 43,748.8 41,905.2 7,624.5 297,948.5

Open Knowledge Repository[edit]

Main article: Open Knowledge Repository

The World Bank hosts the Open Knowledge Repository (OKR)[73] as an official open access repository for its research outputs and knowledge products. The World Bank's repository is listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories re3data.org.[74]

Criticisms and controversy[edit]

The World Bank has long been criticized by non-governmental organizations, such as the indigenous rights group Survival International, and academics, including Henry Hazlitt, Ludwig Von Mises, and its former Chief Economist Joseph Stiglitz.[75][76][77] Hazlitt argued that the World Bank along with the monetary system it was designed within would promote world inflation and "a world in which international trade is State-dominated" when they were being advocated.[78] Stiglitz argued that the free market reform policies that the Bank advocates are often harmful to economic development if implemented badly, too quickly ("shock therapy"), in the wrong sequence or in weak, uncompetitive economies.[76][79]

One of the most common criticisms of the World Bank has been the way it is governed. While the World Bank represents 188 countries, it is run by a small number of economically powerful countries. These countries (which also provide most of the institution's funding) choose the Bank's leadership and senior management, and their interests dominate.[80]: 190  Titus Alexander argues that the unequal voting power of western countries and the World Bank's role in developing countries makes it similar to the South African Development Bank under apartheid, and therefore a pillar of global apartheid.[81]: 133–141 

In the 1990s, the World Bank and the IMF forged the Washington Consensus, policies that included deregulation and liberalization of markets, privatization and the downscaling of government. Though the Washington Consensus was conceived as a policy that would best promote development, it was criticized for ignoring equity, employment, and how reforms like privatization were carried out. Stiglitz argued that the Washington Consensus placed too much emphasis on GDP growth and not enough on the permanence of growth or on whether growth contributed to better living standards.[77]: 17 

The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations report criticized the World Bank and other international financial institutions for focusing too much "on issuing loans rather than on achieving concrete development results within a finite period of time" and called on the institution to "strengthen anti-corruption efforts".[82]

James Ferguson has argued that the main effect of many development projects carried out by the World Bank and similar organizations is not the alleviation of poverty. Instead, the projects often serve to expand the exercise of bureaucratic state power. His case studies of development projects in Thaba-Tseka show that the World Bank's characterization of the economic conditions in Lesotho was flawed, and the Bank ignored the political and cultural character of the state in crafting its projects. As a result, the projects failed to help the poor but succeeded in expanding the government bureaucracy.[83]

Criticism of the World Bank and other organizations often takes the form of protesting, such as the World Bank Oslo 2002 Protests,[84] the 2007 October Rebellion,[85] and the 1999 Battle of Seattle.[86] Such demonstrations have occurred all over the world, even among the Brazilian Kayapo people.[87]

Another source of criticism has been the tradition of having an American head the bank, implemented because the United States provides the majority of World Bank funding. "When economists from the World Bank visit poor countries to dispense cash and advice," observed The Economist in 2012, "they routinely tell governments to reject cronyism and fill each important job with the best candidate available. It is good advice. The World Bank should take it."[88]

In 2021, an independent inquiry of the World Bank's Doing Business reports by the law firm WilmerHale found that World Bank leaders, including then-Chief Executive Kristalina Georgieva and then-President Jim Yong Kim,[89] pressured staff members of the bank to alter data to inflate the rankings for China, Saudi Arabia, Azerbaijan and the United Arab Emirates.[90][91]

Structural adjustment[edit]

The effect of structural adjustment policies on poor countries has been one of the most significant criticisms of the World Bank.[92] The 1979 energy crisis plunged many countries into economic crisis.[93]: 68  The World Bank responded with structural adjustment loans, which distributed aid to struggling countries while enforcing policy changes in order to reduce inflation and fiscal imbalance. Some of these policies included encouraging production, investment and labour-intensive manufacturing, changing real exchange rates, and altering the distribution of government resources. Structural adjustment policies were most effective in countries with an institutional framework that allowed these policies to be implemented easily. For some countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, economic growth regressed and inflation worsened.

By the late 1980s, some international organizations began to believe that structural adjustment policies were worsening life for the world's poor, due to a reduction in social spending and an increase in the price of food, as subsidies were lifted. The World Bank changed structural adjustment loans, allowing for social spending to be maintained, and encouraging a slower change to policies such as transfer of subsidies and price rises.[93]: 70  In 1999, the World Bank and the IMF introduced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper approach to replace structural adjustment loans.[94]: 147 

Fairness of assistance conditions[edit]

Some critics,[95] most prominently the author Naomi Klein, are of the opinion that the World Bank Group's loans and aid have unfair conditions attached to them that reflect the interests, financial power and political doctrines (notably the Washington Consensus) of the Bank and, by extension, the countries that are most influential within it. Among other allegations, Klein says the Group's credibility was damaged "when it forced school fees on students in Ghana in exchange for a loan; when it demanded that Tanzania privatise its water system; when it made telecom privatisation a condition of aid for Hurricane Mitch; when it demanded labour 'flexibility' in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami; when it pushed for eliminating food subsidies in post-invasion Iraq".[96]

A study of the period 1970-2004 found that a less-developed country would on average receive more World Bank projects during any period when it occupied one of the rotating seats on the UN Security Council.[97]

Sovereign immunity[edit]

The World Bank requires sovereign immunity from countries it deals with.[98][99][100] Sovereign immunity waives a holder from all legal liability for their actions. It is proposed that this immunity from responsibility is a "shield which The World Bank wants to resort to, for escaping accountability and security by the people".[98] As the United States has veto power, it can prevent the World Bank from taking action against its interests.[98]

PricewaterhouseCoopers[edit]

World Bank favored PricewaterhouseCoopers as a consultant in a bid for privatizing the water distribution in Delhi, India.[101]

COVID-19[edit]

The World Bank has been criticized for the slow response of its Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility (PEF), a fund that was created to provide money to help manage pandemic outbreaks. The terms of the PEF, which is financed by bonds sold to private investors, prevent any money from being released from the fund until 12 weeks after the outbreak was initially detected (23 March). The COVID-19 pandemic met all other requirements for the funding to be released in January 2020.[102]

Critics have argued that the terms of the PEF are too stringent, and the 12-week delay means that the funding will be much less effective than if it was released to assist governments in initially containing the outbreak. They argue that the fund prioritizes the interests of the private bondholders over public health.[103]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"About the World Bank". worldbank.org.
  2. ^ abc/en/about/leadership/members "Boards of Executive Directors – Member Countries". Retrieved on 5 June 2016.
  3. ^"David Malpass, a US Treasury official and Donald Trump's pick, appointed World Bank president". scroll.in. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  4. ^"World Bank Group Leadership". World Bank. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  5. ^"About Us". World Bank. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  6. ^ abcClemens, Michael A.; Kremer, Michael (2016). "The New Role for the World Bank". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 30 (1): 53–76. doi:10.1257/jep.30.1.53. ISSN 0895-3309.
  7. ^"The Founding Fathers". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
  8. ^The New York Times, 17 March 2015, "France, Germany and Italy Say They'll Join China-Led Bank"
  9. ^ abcdGoldman, Michael (2005). Imperial Nature: The World Bank and Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN .
  10. ^Bird, Kai (1992). The Chairman: John J. McCloy, the Making of the American Establishment. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN .: 288, 290–291 
  11. ^World Bank. "World Bank Historical Chronology: 1970–1979". World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  12. ^Rotberg, Eugene (1994). "Financial Operations of the World Bank". Bretton Woods: looking to the future: commission report, staff review, background papers. Washington, D.C.: Bretton Woods Commission. Archived from the original on 5 July 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  13. ^Mosley, Paul; Harrigan, Jane; Toye, John (1995). Aid and Power: The World Bank and Policy-Based Lending, 2nd Edition. 1. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. ISBN .
  14. ^Toussaint, Eric (1999). Your Money or Your Life!: The Tyranny of Global Finance. London: Pluto Press. ISBN .
  15. ^World Bank. "World Bank Administrative Tribunal". World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  16. ^NELSON D. SCHWARTZ (25 January 2013). "A.W. Clausen, Former Bank of America Chief, Dies at 89". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  17. ^"Tom Clausen, BofA, World Bank head, dies". SFGate. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  18. ^Cornia, Giovanni Andrea; Jolly, Richard; Stewart, Frances, eds. (1987). Adjustment with a Human Face: Protecting the Vulnerable and Promoting Growth. New York, NY: Oxford University Press USA. ISBN .
  19. ^World Bank. "Results". World Bank Group. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  20. ^Clark, Richard; Dolan, Lindsay (2021). "Pleasing the Principal: US Influence in World Bank Policymaking". American Journal of Political Science. 65: 36–51. doi:10.1111/ajps.12531. S2CID 219757123. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  21. ^Office of the Press Secretary (23 March 2012). "President Obama Announces U.S. Nomination of Dr. Jim Yong Kim to Lead World Bank". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 23 March 2012 – via National Archives.
  22. ^BBC (7 January 2019). "Jim Yong Kim steps down as President of World Bank". BBC News.
  23. ^Elliot, Larry (29 September 2020). "World Bank announces $12bn plan for poor countries to buy Covid vaccines". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  24. ^World Bank. "Millennium Development Goals". World Bank Group. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  25. ^The World Bank. "Environmental and Social Policies". World Bank Group. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  26. ^Korinna Horta (February 2013). "Most relevant review". dandc.eu.
  27. ^The World Bank (October 2018). "Environmental and Social Framework". World Bank Group.
  28. ^Hurlburt, Heather (23 March 2012). "Why Jim Yong Kim would make a great World Bank president". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  29. ^World Bank. "Leadership". World Bank Group. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  30. ^World Bank. "Senior Management". World Bank Group. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  31. ^World Bank. "Boards of Directors". World Bank Group. Retrieved 12 August 2012.[permanent dead link]
  32. ^"Wolfowitz Laid Out Terms for Partner's Pay Package", The Financial Times, 12 April 2007, accessed 14 May 2007
  33. ^Heather Hurlburt (23 March 2012). "Why Jim Yong Kim would make a great World Bank president". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  34. ^Mayeda, Andrew (24 January 2018). "Paul Romer Steps Down as World Bank Chief Economist After Rocky Stint". Bloomberg.com.
  35. ^"Yale's Penny Goldberg appointed chief economist at the World Bank". 26 April 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  36. ^"World Bank Group President Appoints Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg as Chief Economist". Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  37. ^Lawder, David (5 February 2020). "World Bank Loses Chief Economist in under 15 months". Reuters. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  38. ^"World Bank Chief Economist announces resignation". Channel News Asia. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  39. ^"Aart Kraay". World Bank. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  40. ^"Ashraf Ghani

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    SDG partnerships may perpetuate the global North–South divide

    Abstract

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development gives equal emphasis to developed (“Northern”) countries and developing (“Southern”) countries. Thus, implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) demands coherent collaboration to transform society across all countries. Yet, there has been little research published on SDG partnerships and this is the first study to explore the extent to which partners from Northern and Southern countries are involved in them and their focus. It identifies that involvement is unequally distributed and may perpetuate the North–South divide in countries’ resources, including access to data and scientific capacities. Most notably, partners from low-income countries are involved in far fewer partnerships than partners from countries in all other World Bank income categories, although the former are least able to develop sustainably. As such, all those promoting sustainable development from governmental, private and third-sector organisations need to address global inequalities in establishing and implementing SDG partnerships if, collectively, they are to facilitate delivery of Agenda 2030.

    Introduction

    The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted in 2015 by all United Nations (UN) Member States. Its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets build upon the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). While the MDGs focused on actions in developing (“Southern”) countries, the SDGs give equal emphasis to implementation in developed (“Northern”) countries1. However, there is a global North–South divide in countries’ resources, including access to data and scientific capacities. For example, low-income countries have much less investment in research and development and far fewer researchers, when compared to higher income countries2,3. This has substantial implications for the development and implementation of policies and practices. The negative consequences of the divide for how science is designed, produced and communicated and how action on the ground is implemented have been highlighted at all scales from international to local4,5 and across various themes and sectors6,7,8,9. Specifically, it leads to policy development and implementation shaped by a Northern agenda rather than the needs and priorities of Southern countries5,8, preventing global sustainable development and, thereby, fulfilment of Agenda 2030. Thus, the SDGs present numerous challenges for transforming society through coherent collaborative efforts involving all countries10. While each country is responsible for its own sustainable development11, global telecoupling12 means that many SDG actions should be implemented by countries in partnership.

    SDG 17 focuses specifically on strengthening implementation of the SDGs, including through North–South, South-South and triangular cooperation, and multi-stakeholder partnerships13,​ which can be public and private10. Over recent years, the importance of multi-stakeholder partnerships has been increasingly recognized by UN Member States and leading international development institutions14. SDG Target 17.16 highlights that multi-stakeholder partnerships can “mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the SDGs in all countries, in particular developing countries”15. While partnerships may not be a panacea for global inequalities, they offer opportunities for people and institutions from different contexts to negotiate social relations and power that can lead to more respectful, equal implementation16. It has been specifically suggested that Northern countries should “co-produce knowledge, technologies, and processes for sustainability”17 with Southern countries to support development of their capacities18,19. The equitable involvement of southern partners in such co-production is important to ensure that resultant knowledge systems are credible, salient and legitimate20.

    Despite the acknowledged importance of multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development, there has been limited research on their focus, which countries are involved, and relationships between them. Additionally, while SDG 17 highlights the need to enhance Southern countries’ capacity to implement the SDGs (Target 17.16), little is known about its achievement. While there are some reports on SDG partnerships21,22,23, very few have focused on how they address the global North–South divide24. Thus, our paper aims to explore the extent to which partners from Northern and Southern countries are involved in SDG partnerships globally, in different regions of the world, and the SDGs on which they focus. We use World Bank income categories25 in applying the descriptors “North” or “Northern” to high-income countries, and “South” or “Southern” to countries in all other income categories25. Our analyses use data collected from the UN’s SDG Partnerships Platform.

    Results

    Countries in the partnerships

    A total of 4521 partnerships were registered on the UN’s SDG Partnerships Platform in July 2019. Of those, 1645 partnerships (36%) referred to an organisation (e.g. the UN or the European Commission) or a broad geographical focus (i.e. without identifying partners from a specific country), with most referring to “oceans” (863; 19%) or “global” (371; 8%). Subsequently, our analyses of “countries’ involvement” addressed the 2876 partnerships (64%) that specifically identified partners from one or more countries. Of these partnerships, 1724 (60%) involved partners from at least one Southern country and 1309 (45%) included partners from one or more Northern countries.

    Partners from a total of 195 countries were involved in at least one registered partnership (Fig. 1). Of those, 30% (59) were from high-income Northern countries and the remainder (136) were from Southern countries: upper-middle-income (30%), lower-middle-income (24%) and low-income (16%) (Fig. 1, pie chart).

    Distribution of partners’ countries by World Bank income category and region. The number and percentage of partners’ countries involved in the 2876 partnerships that specifically identified partners from one or more countries are shown by World Bank income category (pie-chart) and by World Bank region (large map). Total number of partners’ countries: 195. Map generated in QGIS 3.12 (https://qgis.org/) and further modified in Inkscape 0.92.5 (https://inkscape.org/).

    Full size image

    The partners’ countries were unevenly distributed across the World Bank’s seven world regions (Fig. 1), with the greatest number located in Europe & Central Asia (53; 27%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (48; 25%). The number of partnerships in which partners from these countries were involved ranged from 1 to 231, with an average of 29 partnerships per country. Partners from 174 (90%) of the countries were involved in less than 60 partnerships, while partners from 93 (48%) of the countries were involved in less than 20 partnerships.

    Registered partnerships that specifically identified partners from one or more countries (Fig. 2a) included 2586 (90%) partnerships with partners from only one country, i.e. domestic partnerships (Fig. 2b), 264 (9%) partnerships with partners from 2 to 20 countries (Fig. 2c), and 26 (1%) partnerships with partners from more than 20 countries (Fig. 2d). On average, each country had 13 domestic partnerships, 7 partnerships involving partners from 2 to 20 countries, and 13 partnerships with partners from more than 20 countries.

    Distribution of the number of partnerships that specifically identified partners’ countries. Overview of the number of partnerships that specifically identified partners from: (a) one or more countries; (b) only one country, i.e. domestic partnerships; (c) 2 to 20 countries; and (d) more than 20 countries. Northern countries (high income) are shown in shades of blue; Southern countries (upper-middle, lower-middle and low income) are shown in shades of red. Maps generated in QGIS 3.12 (https://qgis.org/). Larger versions of the components of this figure are included in Supplementary Material.

    Full size image

    There were some clear differences in the average number of partnerships in relation to the income category of partners’ countries (Fig. 3). Across all sizes of partnerships, partners from high-income (Northern) countries participated in almost twice as many partnerships (34 per country) as those from low-income countries (18 per country). Partners from low-income countries were also involved in considerably fewer domestic partnerships (4), as compared with those in other income categories (12 to 19), on average. However, partners from countries across all income categories were, on average, party to a similar number of partnerships with partners from 2 to 20 or more than 20 countries (6 to 10 and 8 to 9 partnerships, respectively).

    Average number of partnerships per partners’ countries by partnership size and country income category. Figures in the first column are not the sum of figures in the subsequent columns, as all are average figures.

    Full size image

    Partnerships’ focal SDGs

    Based on the information included in the UN database, we identified each partnership’s focal SDGs. In general, all partnerships that identified partners from at least one country (Fig. 4a) focused most strongly on SDG 14 (Life below water) and then in descending order on SDGs 4 (Quality education), 8 (Decent work and economic growth), 17 (Partnerships for the goals) and 5 (Gender equality). This was also true more specifically of domestic partnerships (Fig. 4b). However, while partnerships that identified partners from 2 to 20 countries also focused most strongly on SDG 14, they then focused in descending order on SDGs 17, 5, 4, and 8 (Fig. 4c). There was an increasing focus on SDG 17 with size of partnership. The focus of the largest partnerships was, in general, quite different from partnerships that identified partners from 20 or fewer countries (Fig. 4b,c), as they focused most strongly on SDG 8 and then in descending order on SDGs 17, 4, 1 (No poverty), and 10 (Reduced inequalities). In addition, few of the largest partnerships focused on SDG 14 (Fig. 4d).

    Partnerships’ focal SDGs. The SDGs addressed by (a) all partnerships that specifically identified partners from at least one country, (b) domestic partnerships, (c) partnerships involving 2 to 20 countries, and (d) partnerships with more than 20 countries. The bars on the left of Figs. 4a to 4d represent the percentage of partnerships that address each SDG. The bars on the right of Figs. 4a to 4d represent the percentage of partnerships that address each SDG involving partners from countries in each income category (represented by different intensities of colour). Note that many partnerships include partners from countries across multiple income categories and address more than one SDG. Larger versions of the components of this figure are included in Supplementary Material.

    Full size image

    There were notable differences in the relative proportion of partners from countries in different income categories involved in partnerships focused on some SDGs. In general, across all partnerships that identified partners from at least one country (Fig. 4a) and, specifically, for domestic partnerships (Fig. 4b), the percentage of partnerships focused on SDGs 1, 2 (Zero hunger), 3 (Good health and well-being), and 5 decreased with increasing income category of the countries involved. In contrast, for SDG 14 the reverse was broadly true, except for high-income countries, and for SDG 4 a higher proportion of low-income and high-income countries was involved than middle-income countries. Notably, the relative proportion of partners from countries in different income categories involved in partnerships that focused on SDG 13 (Climate action) was broadly similar within each size category of partnerships and increased across all income categories in the same way with increasing size of partnership.

    Country-wise relations between partners

    In order to analyse the country-wise relationships between partners from different countries and World Bank regions, we assumed that a partner from a country had relations with partners from all other countries within the same partnership. The analysis focused only on those partnerships that involved partners from 2 to 20 countries (see “Methods“ for details), i.e. 264 partnerships. These partnerships involved 9468 such country-wise relationships. Approximately 10% (945) of the relationships solely involved partners from Northern countries, i.e. North–North (Fig. 5a), 35% (3286) were between partners from Northern and Southern countries, i.e. North–South (Fig. 5b), while most (55%; 5236) solely involved partners from Southern countries, i.e. South-South (Fig. 5c). Approximately 36% (342) of all North–North relationships were between partners within Europe & Central Asia region, and a further 15% (146) were between partners from Europe & Central Asia and East Asia & Pacific. Most North–South relationships (2463; 75%;) were between partners in different regions, most commonly between partners in Europe & Central Asia and East Asia & Pacific (328; 10%), and between partners in Europe & Central Asia and Latin America & Caribbean (277; 8%). A large proportion of South-South relationships (55%; 2898) were between partners from countries within the same region, particularly within East Asia & Pacific (1052; 58%) and Sub-Saharan Africa (1037; 42%). The remainder of South-South relationships (45%; 2338), between partners in different regions, mostly involved partners from Sub-Saharan Africa (1407; 60%).

    Number of country-wise relationships within and between World Bank regions. The types of relationships are indicated by different coloured circles (within regions) and lines (between regions): (a) North–North relationships (black), (b) North–South relationships (grey) and (c) South-South relationships (white). The size of circles and the figures in the circles represent the number of relationships between partners from different countries within each region. Line thickness and the figures in italics associated with the lines represent the number of relationships between partners from different regions. Numbers in the coloured boxes of the legend identify the respective numbers of Northern countries and Southern countries in each region included in the analysis. Maps generated in Arcgis Desktop 10.7 (https://www.esri.com/en-us/arcgis/products/arcgis-desktop/overview) and further modified in Inkscape 0.92.5 (https://inkscape.org/). Larger versions of the components of this figure are included in Supplementary Material.

    Full size image

    The average number of country-wise relationships differed among World Bank regions (Fig. 6a, circles). For Northern countries, overall those in North America had the greatest number of relationships per country (32), closely followed by those in Latin America & the Caribbean (29) and East Asia & Pacific (28), while for Southern countries, those in East Asia & Pacific had the greatest number of relationships per country (59 relationships).

    Comparison of the average number of country-wise relationships. For: (a) Northern countries or Southern countries in different World Bank regions (blue or red circles), separated into relationships between partners in different Northern or Southern countries (blue or red bars), within or outside each region (transparent or filled bars), where the number at the end of each bar is the percentage of that type of relationship within that region; (b) Northern countries in different World Bank regions by SDG; and (c) Southern countries in different World Bank regions by SDG. Larger versions of the components of this figure are included in Supplementary Material.

    Full size image

    Not only did the average number of country-wise relationships differ among World Bank regions, so did the frequency of different types of relationships in which partners were involved, i.e. with partners in Northern or Southern countries, within or outside their own region (Fig. 6a). Relationships between Northern partners were most prevalent in North America and in East Asia & Pacific. In both cases, the greatest proportion of such relationships, 29% (18 out of 63) and 25% (48 out of 194) respectively, were with partners from Northern countries in other regions. In contrast, partners from Northern countries, in general, had most relationships with partners from Southern countries within the same region, e.g. in East Asia & Pacific (106 out of 184; 55%), Latin America & Caribbean (145 out of 228; 64%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (4 out of 6; 67%). Two regions were exceptions: Europe & Central Asia, where many relationships (188 out of 423; 44%) were with other Northern partners within the region; and North America, where most relationships (41 out of 63; 65%) were with Southern countries outside the region. Partners from Southern countries, in general, had most relationships with partners from other Southern countries within the same region, with most such relationships in East Asia & Pacific (975 out of 1358; 72%), Europe & Central Asia (174 out of 257; 68%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (651 out of 871; 75%). The only exception was South Asia where partners had most relationships (130 out of 179; 73%) with partners in Southern countries outside the region.

    The average number of country-wise relationships also differed depending on the SDGs that were addressed by partnerships in which partners from countries in a region were involved (Fig. 6b,c). The highest average number of relationships for Northern countries (Fig. 6b) was associated with partnerships focused on SDG 14, particularly those with partners from North America, followed by those involving partners from Latin America & the Caribbean, and East Asia & Pacific. There were also more relationships for Northern countries associated with partnerships focused on SDG 4 and/or 10 involving partners from Europe & Central Asia, and on SDG 7 with partners from Latin America & the Caribbean than for any other regions or focal SDGs. For Southern countries, by far the highest average number of country-wise relationships was associated with partners from East Asia & Pacific, and Latin America & the Caribbean, involved in partnerships focused on SDG 14. In addition, there were more relationships for Southern countries associated with partnerships focused on SDG 8, as well as 5 and/or 4, involving partners from the Middle East & North Africa, and on SDG 13 and/or 17 with partners from East Asia & Pacific than for any other regions or focal SDGs.

    Discussion

    The analysis highlighted several issues indicating that implementation of the SDGs may suffer from unequal distribution of effort globally, potentially perpetuating the North–South divide5,8.

    Most partnerships recorded in the UN database were domestic partnerships

    The idea of multi-stakeholder partnerships to tackle global sustainability challenges, as introduced by SDG 17, has gained traction recently. However, the actual distribution of partnerships may seemingly have reflected the ease with which they were developed rather than sustainable development needs. For example, it may have been easier to develop partnerships within a country or with partners in nearby countries because of pre-existing relations, logistics or familiar sources of funding.

    Partners from low-income countries participated in fewer partnerships, as compared to partners in all other income categories

    This may suggest that partners from low-income countries did not have the capacity or resources to get involved in partnerships. In addition, it is conceivable that Northern countries favoured working with partners from middle-income categories for a range of different reasons. For example, it may be that they had more in common, had greater resources of interest, could form more strategic alliances, were already making progress, and/or were less challenging to work with than partners from low-income countries. A recent study by Bull and McNeill26 that analysed public–private partnerships focused on SDGs revealed similar domination by actors from Northern countries, particularly in Europe (followed by Africa and Oceania), and found correlation between GDP per capita and the number of partnerships in which partners from a country was involved. Partners from high-income countries also previously dominated public–private partnerships focused on the MDGs27.

    The focus of partnerships differed depending on the number of countries from which partners were involved

    The largest partnerships (with partners from more than 20 countries) focused substantially more on SDG 8, and the percentage of partnerships focused on it increased with increasing income category of the countries from which partners were involved. It may be worrying that the largest and, thus, potentially most powerful partnerships focused on economic growth. This focus also reflects a recent critique that the SDGs place inappropriate emphasis on development considerations, instead of on sustainability28. At the same time, few largest partnerships focused on SDG 14, which may reflect that the sustainable development of our oceans is largely neglected29. However, the marine environment was a considerable focus for partnerships with fewer than 20 partners, perhaps where nearby countries shared interests in what is one of our greatest commons.

    The focus of partnerships also differed depending on the income category of the countries involved

    Those with partners from low-income countries focused more on SDG 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 than those involving partners from higher income countries. This is striking, as partners from high-income countries might also have been expected to focus on these goals from an altruistic, humanitarian perspective and in their countries’ own vested interests, given potential transnational climate impacts and spill-over effects, such as on regional conflict, mass migration, and spread of disease30,31,32. Indeed, both those potential motivations may perhaps be reflected in the greater involvement of partners from low-income and high-income countries, as compared with those from middle-income counties, in partnerships focused on SDG 4. In contrast, relatively few partners from low-income countries were involved in partnerships focused on SDG 14, which seems logical, as they are most likely to be landlocked33.

    The relative focus on climate action (SDG 13) was similar for partners from countries across all income categories. However, our results do not disaggregate whether the focus on SDG 13 was primarily on climate mitigation and/or adaptation. It might have been anticipated that partnerships would have involved more partners from Northern countries when focused on climate mitigation, and from Southern countries when focused on climate adaptation, reflecting that G20 countries are responsible for almost 80% of global emissions34, while Southern countries have suffered most from extreme weather events35 and are perceived as disproportionately vulnerable to climate change36,37.

    Partnerships with partners from more than one country included North–North country-wise relationships least frequently, relatively few North–South relationships, and mostly South–South relationships

    This may perhaps be explained by a legacy of thinking from the MDGs having led partners from Northern countries to view SDGs as still a Southern rather than global and domestic concern for all and, hence, neither prioritising North–North nor North–South relations. Indeed, North–South relationships were most commonly between partners in Europe & Central Asia and East Asia & Pacific, and between partners in Europe & Central Asia and Latin America & Caribbean, which may simply reflect colonial legacies and/or common languages (e.g. English, Spanish, French, Portuguese). Furthermore, partners from Southern countries may have preferentially formed partnerships with other Southern countries with common challenges and experiences from whom they could most readily learn, or in a quest to avoid uneven power relations with Northern countries. Indeed, South-South collaboration has been highlighted as important for strengthening the capacities of Southern countries5. However, a large proportion of South-South relations were with partners from countries within the same region, which may suggest an inability to engage in partnerships elsewhere without Northern involvement.

    Finally, at a regional level, unequal distribution of effort globally may reflect geopolitics

    For example, partners in North America had the greatest number of North–North relationships, mostly with partners from other regions, perhaps reflecting the global influence of the US. In contrast, the differing situation in Europe & Central Asia, where most North–North relationships were between partners within the region, probably reflects the EU’s governance. In general, most North–South relationships were between partners within the same region, possibly reflecting self-centred Northern concerns about nearby Southern countries as potential sources of transnational impacts or spill-over effects30.

    Conclusions and recommendations

    Our study highlights that the implementation of SDGs, through partnerships, is not equally distributed globally and may, thus, perpetuate the existing North–South divide. Partners from low-income countries, particularly, were involved in far fewer partnerships generally and domestic partnerships specifically those in any higher income categories. Yet, low-income countries are least able to advance their sustainable development independently, most in need of capacity-building support, and most disadvantaged by the North–South divide. So, to fully address Agenda 2030, all those involved in encouraging and establishing partnerships for SDGs (e.g. international funders and development organisations, national policymakers, research institutions, the private sector, non-governmental organisations, and potential partners themselves) need to address challenges posed by existing global inequalities in the design and implementation of partnerships. In particular, the perceptions and capacity-building needs of partners from low-income countries require meaningful consideration38.

    Investment by funders in the establishment of multi-country partnerships should be encouraged, specifically focusing on North–South partnerships and supporting partners from low-income countries. Moreover, there is a need for further research regarding the impact of the North–South divide on the focus of SDG partnerships, as our analysis identifies that the focus of partnerships differs depending on the income categories of the partners involved. As such, there is a need to explore whether the potential bias in focal SDGs addressed by partnerships may reflect the interests of higher income countries that have greater capacity to further their agenda, and how to encourage more investment by funders in low-income countries’ priorities. There is also a need for better reporting and data gathering in relation to SDG partnerships in order to track their work on SDGs globally, as well as its progress in bridging the North–South divide. The UN’s SDG Partnerships Platform that we used to gather the data for our study does not ensure data entry of parameters relevant to the North–South divide, e.g. many descriptions of SDG partnerships do not include information about the countries or the types of organisations involved.

    All the above conclusions and recommendations point to Northern countries, international funders and development organisations needing to pay greater heed to SDG 17, its targets (e.g. 17.2, 17.6, 17.9 and 17.16) and associated indicators. SDG 17 will only truly strengthen implementation of the SDGs in ways that span the North–South divide if they listen and respond to low income countries’ needs rather than pursue a Northern agenda. This includes recognizing that seeking to leverage private finance may inevitably lead to an inappropriate emphasis on SDG 8 and that the primary need is to encourage sustainability rather than development.

    North–South partnerships need to be forged on mutual terms in a non-discriminatory and equitable way, as stipulated by Agenda 2030. This was not the case during the implementation of the MDGs, where North–South partnerships were most commonly developed from a Northern perspective, according to Northern priorities rather than attentive of Southern needs and views39. However, Agenda 2030 offers an opportunity to address this shortcoming and promote more balanced implementation of global sustainable development, while bridging the North–South divide. To conclude, it is vital to “Mind the gap” between Northern and Southern countries in establishing and implementing partnerships for sustainable development or, collectively, they will fail to provide the coherent collaboration needed to transform society across all countries.

    Methods

    Data about SDG partnerships were collected from the UN’s SDG Partnerships Platform (https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/browse), which maintains the UN’s global online register of voluntary commitments and multi-stakeholder partnerships established in support of the 17 SDGs. It is the most comprehensive global database of partnerships implementing the SDGs, although we acknowledge that it limits our analyses in a few ways. Firstly, the database is voluntary, so the registered partnerships will not represent all those that exist globally. However, registering a partnership on the database reflects a broad commitment to SDG implementation and, as such, provides a worthwhile overview of important actors working towards Agenda 2030. Secondly, while the Platform provides a standard template for partnership information, there is variation in the data provided. For example, some partnerships do not provide clear information about the partners’ countries, so could not be included in our analyses. In addition, the information in the database may list partners’ countries but does not define partners’ roles, i.e. whether those countries listed are the ones from which partners were involved or the ones where the partnerships were active. Thus, our study only uses the names of partners’ countries and does not analyse their roles. Finally, the database does not enable checking of whether partnerships are actively implementing the SDGs or are just partnerships “on paper”. The status “not active” in the UN’s register only means that a partnership has not submitted a voluntary progress report, so it may be still active. Thus, our study analyses partnerships registered on the UN Platform, no matter their activity status.

    We collected and saved information in an Excel database on each partnership: name, code, brief description, the focal SDGs addressed, and partners’ countries. Data on a total of 4521 partnerships were gathered by 18th August 2019, involving partners from 195 countries. We classified these countries according to the World Bank income categories for 2021, as high-income countries (59 countries, 30%), upper-middle income (58 countries, 30%), lower-middle income (47 countries, 24%), and low-income (31 countries, 16%) (https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups). In order to inform our analyses we defined high-income countries as “Northern”, and countries in all other income categories as “Southern”. As a focus of our study was on the relationships between partners from different countries or within a country, we only included in the analyses those 2876 partnerships that specifically identified partners from at least one country. The remaining 1645 partnerships (36% of all recorded on the platform) only referred to an organisation (e.g. the UN or the European Commission) or a broader region, with most referring to “oceans” (863, 19%) or “global” (371, 8%).

    Using the data in our excel database, we calculated and mapped the spatial distribution of the number and percentage of partners’ countries in different regions involved in the selected 2876 partnerships. We used a GIS world shape file downloaded from http://tapiquen-sig.jimdo.com (Carlos Efraín Porto Tapiquén. Orogénesis Soluciones Geográficas. Porlamar, Venezuela 2015. Based on shapes from Environmental Systems Research Institute, ESRI. Free Distribution) and the World Bank’s regions for this map and all subsequent mapping. We then calculated and mapped for each Northern and Southern country the number of partnerships that specifically identified partners from: (a) one or more countries; (b) only one country, i.e. domestic partnerships; (c) 2 to 20 countries; and (d) more than 20 countries. In doing so, we also calculated the average number of partnerships per partners’ countries in relation to the size of partnerships and country income category. We then identified each partnership’s focal SDGs and presented them in relation to the size of partnerships and the income category of partners’ countries.

    We calculated the number of country-wise relationships within those partnerships that included partners from at least two countries. Outlying partnerships that involved partners from an exceptional number of countries (those more than 1.5 times the interquartile range above the third quartile) were excluded. This resulted in a dataset of 264 partnerships that included partners from between two and 20 countries. In order to analyse the country-wise relationships between partners, we assumed that a partner from a country had relations with partners from all other countries within the same partnership. For example, the largest partnership involving 20 countries had 190 country-wise relationships; Eq. (1):

    $$\left(\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{20}{2}\right)=\frac{20!}{\left(20-2\right)! 2!}=190$$

    However, we acknowledge that within each partnership some partners will be more involved than others and have a greater proportion of meaningful country-wise relationships. We then used these calculations to map the total number of country-wise relationships within and between different World Bank regions by type (i.e. North–North, North–South and South-South). The calculations also allowed us to determine the average number of country-wise relationships for Northern countries or Southern countries in different World Bank regions, separated into relationships between partners in different Northern or Southern countries, within or outside each region. Finally, we identified the average number of country-wise relationships for Northern or Southern countries in different World Bank regions by SDG.

    All calculations and statistical analyses were conducted in the scientific programming and numeric computing platform MATLAB, while maps were produced using the geographic information system applications ARCGIS and QGIS. Figures were visually adjusted using the raster graphic editor GIMP and the vector graphic editor INKSCAPE.

    Data availability

    The raw data analysed in this paper are freely available from the UN’s SDG Partnerships Platform (https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/browse).

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    Funding

    Open access funding provided by Uppsala University.

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    Author notes
    1. These authors contributed equally: Malgorzata Blicharska and Claudia Teutschbein.

    Affiliations

    1. Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

      Malgorzata Blicharska

    2. Air, Water and Landscape Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

      Claudia Teutschbein

    3. Ricardo Energy & Environment, Gemini Building, Fermi Avenue, Harwell, Didcot, OX11 0QR, UK

      Richard J. Smithers

    Contributions

    M.B. and R.J.S. initiated the study; C.T. conducted the analysis with help from M.B. and R.J.S.; C.T. created the display items; M.B. and R.J.S. wrote the paper with text contributions by C.T.

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Malgorzata Blicharska.

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    Blicharska, M., Teutschbein, C. & Smithers, R.J. SDG partnerships may perpetuate the global North–South divide. Sci Rep11, 22092 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-01534-6

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    president of Afghanistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
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Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Bank

Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Latin America and Caribbean Regions

Latin America is a region with vast renewable energy resources and an enormous potential to further increase their shares of renewable energy technologies. According to estimations by IRENA, Latin America and the Caribbean requires investments of USD 118 billion each year in renewable power generation, energy efficiencies, electrification of heat, transportation, and power grids to be in line with the Paris Agreement’s objectives.

Conscious of this need, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) have launched the Energy Transition Accelerator Financing (ETAF) Platform. An inclusive, multi-stakeholder climate finance solution managed by IRENA to advance the energy transition across the Agency’s 166-strong membership. The UAE committed USD 400 million in funding provided by the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) toward the platform’s goal of securing a minimum of USD 1 billion in total funding to be deploy by 2030.

In this context, IRENA, ETAF’s management, and the Interamerican Development Bank (IDB) are organising a two-day regional virtual event to showcase the ETAF Platform and discuss the current environment for the financing renewable technologies in the region from the perspectives of project proponents, government representatives, Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs), and other climate finance platform initiatives focused on emerging markets and the Latin America and Caribbean region. Day two of the event will highlight the investments required for the further decarbonisation of the region’s economies, as well as novel options that help facilitate climate finance.

Closed event (by invitation only)


Источник: https://irena.org/events/2021/Dec/Financing-Renewable-Energy-Projects-in-LAC

What time does regions post direct deposits



what time does regions post direct deposits Aug 11, 2020 · When making a Regions Bank wire transfer, you’ll need to use routing number 062005690 and also supply the bank’s name, your name and account number, and address: Regions Bank. The order in which we generally post items during nightly processing for each business day is: First, we make any previous day adjustments, and add deposits to your account. Every pay period, your employer sends Nov 08, 2021 · Receive a qualifying direct deposit of $200 or more within the first 45 days of enrolling to get a $100 Bonus. May 30, 2019 · The first is Direct Deposit. The bank does have the right to extend the hold if Deposits post Monday-to-Friday throughout the day. Also, a financial institution can hold checks or deposits for longer if they are larger amounts. Wells Fargo actually processes quickly, with accounts updated around midnight in most states. Read on for a more detailed answer: If you requested the bank transfer on a weekday (Mon-Fri) before 7pm ET, the bank transfer could reach your bank account as soon as the next business day. m. 50% APY CD Rates! Aug 06, 2013 · Depending upon where you bank, your money could be in your account on the stroke of midnight on payday, or it could be there after 9 a. Ally Bank is an online-only bank that features live 24-hour customer service. Mobile Mar 17, 2021 · Direct deposit third stimulus payments will be available to bank account holders by no later than 9 a. Make 10 or more purchases with your Regions Visa CheckCard that post to your account within 30 days of account opening. Set up Regions Direct Deposit and make $500 or more of qualifying ACH direct deposits such as payroll or government payments. However, not all customers [will] receive stimulus payments from the U. Deposits and checks from social security have not been delayed. , Pacific Time, two federal banking days prior to your paycheck date in order to guarantee your direct deposits process on time. Several other factors can also cause delays. We still haven't gotten our stimulus payment and we cant see pending deposits in her account. Mar 29, 2021 · How Long Does Direct Deposit Take? 1-3 Days. " 7. June 5, 2019 10:20 PM. 75% up to 2. On average, direct deposit usually takes one to three business days to clear. Families can stop payments anytime Mar 17, 2021 · Direct deposit third stimulus payments will be available to bank account holders by no later than 9 a. On Saturdays, you can call the customer service starting from 8 AM – 2 PM. Regions Bank. MJFan062509. In addition, Regions merged with AmSouth on November 4, 2006. In some cases it may take 5-7 business days for a financial institution to process the refund and make the deposit so the funds are available. The bank may place a hold on the amount deposited over $5,525. Hopefully it will be deposited tomorrow. Those situations might be called "exceptions. Batches can be closed once per day, or multiple times per day. Apr 30, 2019 · An ACH settlement time, or “settlement period” is a predetermined number of banking days that payment processors hold onto your ACH Debit funds before they get deposited into your bank account. With direct deposit, families can access their money more quickly. Birmingham, AL 35203. All banks have specific times and time frames when they update their customers accounts. How long does it take your refund to be deposit into a credit union. The rest of the deposit should generally be available on the second business day. When an exception applies, the bank may hold funds for a “reasonable” amount of time. When successfully submitted, ACH Credits always post to the Receiver Mar 19, 2015 · Funds Availability Policy by Deposit Type. We generally post such deposits on the business day they are received, which may be up to three business days earlier than the scheduled payment date. You will be using this address for any wire transfers even if you bank at a different location. Sep 30, 2021 · 2pm local time. Your ACH Batch Cut-off Time. Funds from direct deposits, cash deposits or wire transfers are generally available the same day they are deposited to your account. 2 Early access to tax refund direct deposits depends on deposit description and timing of government’s submission of deposit. M. Oct 21, 2021 · What time does government post deposits? Most banks update their accounts sometime between 12AM and 5AM. 2346 shares for each 1 share of Regions they owned prior to the merger and Union Planters stockholders received 1 share for each 1 share of Union Planters they owned prior to the merger. Ally offers strong rates, innovative tools and superior customer service. No data points; Flagstar. Wells Fargo: 1, Florida Community Bank. You can expect your government direct deposit to post during this time and be available once your bank opens. **For holidays falling on Sunday, Federal Reserve Banks and Branches will be closed the following Monday — July 5, 2021, June 20, 2022, December 26, 2022, and January 2, 2023. Since Ally saves by eliminating the need for local branches, they’re able to offer extremely competitive rates on …. Feb 15, 2021 · When does a direct deposit hit your account? The expected time frame for direct deposits to post is between 12 a. Generally, a bank must make the first $225 from the deposit available—for either cash withdrawal or check writing purposes—at the start of the next business day after the banking day that the deposit is made. Find a SunTrust Bank Tue Mar 27 12:43:10 PDT 2018. For check deposits […] funds availability large deposit. Generally, a bank or credit union has until at least the next business day to make Deposits post Monday-to-Friday throughout the day. If they tell you ssd or ssdi ssa did not process nothing read more. End of business day (no earlier than 2pm) No earlier than 12pm (3pm at non-PNC ATMs and 10pm for mobile deposits Jun 05, 2019 · The direct deposit according to East Coast time midnight to 1 o’clock if you have your card through a company like H&R Block and hit immediately if it’s through chase bank it should hit immediately some credit unions will post direct deposit around 3 AM level 1. Nov 18, 2021 · Deposit at least one check using Regions Mobile Deposit. What is ACH Settlement Time? Your ACH Batch Cut-off Time. Transactions are placed in the batch open at the time they are entered. Description of deposit When funds can be withdrawn by cash or check Direct deposits The day we receive the deposit. When payday falls on a bank holiday, employees’ direct deposits are delayed a day. (It’s important to note that settlement periods do not apply to ACH Credits . RJ Says: February 17th, 2017 at 8:36 pm Thanks to everyone\’s posted information here,certainly starting with @amandac\’s story. Take a look at the following to answer: “When does payroll direct deposit post?” Direct deposit service. The Regions cutoff times for other transactions include 4 pm for cash, 8 pm for DepositSmart ATMs, and 8 pm for mobile and online bill payments and transfers. Find a SunTrust Bank Sep 02, 2021 · Mobile deposit - Deposits made before 4 P. To see why your did not get paid. Cash, wire transfers, cashier's, certified, teller's, or government checks, checks on (bank name) [unless (any limitation related to branches in different check processing regions)], and the first $100 of a day's deposits of other checks. If you do not see your direct deposit in your account, it means that we haven't received it yet. Your payroll must be processed and sent to Intuit before 5 p. local time on March 17, according to NACHA (National Automated Clearing House Association Short answer: As soon as we get it! Longer answer: Up to 2 days earlier than you’d get paid without Early Direct Deposit*, but it ultimately depends on your payor (your employer or a government agency). 23 Feb 06, 2017 · The amount of time it takes direct deposit to go through depends on many different factors. ET will clear the next day. 6pm local time (8pm local time at deposit envelope ATMs) PNC Bank. Families can stop payments anytime Jun 10, 2021 · In QuickBooks Desktop Payroll, you can create and send direct deposit paychecks to your employees. Bank transfers typically arrive within 1-3 business days. Direct deposit timing for holidays. S. Some banks just like to hold on to your money for as long as they possibly can. Give it a Few Days. The following counted as a direct deposit: Wells Fargo: 1; Flagship Bank. e. Top Solutions. 1:30 am to 2:00am if past that call regions bank. The process is fast, but the actual time frame for the funds to hit your account depends on when the issuer initiates the payment. level 2. Knowing when direct deposit goes through depends on the direct deposit system you use. As such, the availability or timing of early direct deposit may vary from pay period to pay period. Mar 19, 2021 · 2 Times reflect targets for outgoing distribution and the Reserve Banks bear no liability should a later distribution time occur. This might be due to holidays or because . Generally, a bank or credit union has until at least the next business day to make Nov 13, 2021 · The ACH only processes direct deposit transfers Monday – Friday. 2. As soon as your direct deposit arrives you will receive a push notification and an email to let you know! How does direct deposit work? We always process and post a deposit as soon as we receive it. Mar 15, 2021 · PNC: "Most PNC customers who have direct deposit set up through the Internal Revenue Service and are eligible to receive a government stimulus payment under the American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 can expect to begin receiving the funds beginning March 17, 2021. In addition, direct deposit eliminates the chance of a lost, stolen or undelivered check. Sep 17, 2021 · Early direct deposits are $3 per paycheck. 50% APY CD Rates when you open up a new Synchrony Bank Certificate of Deposit Account! Below is all the information and details you need to open your Synchrony Bank CD Account to earn 0. My wife has Regions also, our tax refund was deposited in her account. This means you need to submit your payroll before 5:00 PM PST 1 business day prior to payday with a 1-day lead time or 5:00 PM PST 5 business days before payday. At that time, Regions stockholders received 1. · 1y. Early access is not guaranteed. Aug 23, 2019 · Regions Bank Customer Service Hours. This excludes weekends and holidays. Those without direct deposit information on file will receive stimulus funds in the form of paper checks or debit cards in the mail. Mar 16, 2018 · Wed Apr 26 23:52:09 PDT 2017. In general, the time it takes for a refund to be deposited depends on the individual financial institution. The ADP Payments ACH batch close time is 5:00 PM Eastern Time. Available nationwide, you can earn 0. Sluggish processing only works to banks’ advantage because of the increased “float” created by a massive influx of government cash. Jun 30, 2021 · The IRS urges any family receiving checks to consider switching to direct deposit. Direct deposit removes the time, worry and expense of cashing a check. May 07, 2021 · With these products, you may have a 1-day lead time or a 5-day lead time. Sometimes when your direct deposit doesn't show up as planned, the reason is simply that it has just taken a few extra days to process. 3 Settlement for all ACH items processed by a Reserve Bank pursuant to Operating Circular 4 will be made at the times set forth in the Federal Reserve Policy on Payment System Risk and this document, as amended from Jun 30, 2021 · The IRS urges any family receiving checks to consider switching to direct deposit. (It could take up to 3 business days to arrive) Nov 18, 2021 · Deposit at least one check using Regions Mobile Deposit. Usually, you can avail the benefits of Regions Bank Customer Service from 6 AM – 7 PM during weekdays i. Hello there and thank you for using our website to ask your questions. 9 trillion COVID-19 stimulus bill was passed last week, the IRS said it was sending out the first batch of checks by direct deposit, and that some recipients Mar 24, 2021 · Around 17 million direct deposit stimulus payments with an "official pay date" of March 24 have been issued by the IRS, according to a banking industry official quoted by The Washington Post Mar 14, 2021 · Americans begin receiving Covid relief direct deposits March 14, 2021 02:00 Those who make less than $75,000 or heads of households who make less than $112,500 are eligible for the full $1,400 Nov 18, 2021 · Deposit at least one check using Regions Mobile Deposit. Perculees. and 7 a. g. The following do count as a direct deposit: Alliant: 1, The following don’t count as a direct deposit: ACH used to work (1, 2) but in recent times it no longer does Florence Bank. Direct deposit early availability depends on timing of payor’s payment instructions and fraud prevention restrictions may apply. from Monday to Friday. Second, we subtract transactions in chronological order by using the date and time of when the transaction was authorized or shown as pending. what time does regions post direct deposits


Источник: http://ppjobb.com/jxixro/what-time-does-regions-post-direct-deposits.html

: What time does regions bank open

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Sign Up For Online Access Online account. This account pays a top notch APY with just $1,000 to open. Dec 11, 2016 · 11 December 2016 at 6:44PM in Budgeting & Bank Accounts. I know some people assume £1000 deposit a month is a compulsary requirement to open, and if they don't put that amount in, and apply for it the pplication will be declined. com. Sep 20, 2016 · Nationwide Bank is offering a $200 bonus for new customers when you open an E-Checking Account and set up a direct deposit, valid through September 1, 2017. Get $225 from Chase Total Checking. We created a simple step-by-step list to make the process easy and stress free. Minimum deposit to open Mar 24, 2021 · Entity accounts: Most banks with online account opening allow people to open an account. Chase Secure Banking ℠ — $100 Online account. Online Bill Pay - No more missed payments - with Online Bill Pay, you can set up single or recurring payments directly from your online banking dashboard. Visit your local Nationwide Building Society at 29 Lowther Street in Carlisle. Nationwide is On Your Side Nationwide Online Account Access

Routing number regions il



routing number regions il 062000019 – Alabama. 064000017. Collinsville, Illinois 62234 There are several routing numbers for Regions Bank reported in our bank database. Find the nearest Regions Bank near you. Jun 30, 2021 · The Southern Illinois routing number for U. Bank is 081202759. Please make sure this is the correct routing number for your branch! Sep 03, 2021 · Regions Alabama Routing Number: 062000019. There is a total of 34 unique routing numbers in the USA as per the states. Regions' routing number for domestic wire transfers is 062005690, and its international wire transfer routing number is UPNBUS44. This routing number is used for ACH and wire money transfer from Regions Bank Indianapolis to other banks in United States of America. Godfrey, Illinois 62035 There are several routing numbers for Regions Bank reported in our bank database. AL. Regions Bank Florida Routing Number - 063104668. Today we are going to provide you with the regions bank routing numbers of Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Texas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and many more. Sponsored Links Routing Numbers Alabamas — 062000019 Arkansas — 082000109 Florida — 063104668 Georgia — 061101375 Illinois — 071122661 Indiana Sep 30, 2021 · Regions’ routing number for wire transfers is 062005690, and international wire transfer routing number is UPNBUS44. BOX 681 BIRMINGHAM, AL 35201-0000 800 734-4667. Dec 19, 2002 · 062005690. Regions Bank Illinois Routing Number - 071122661. REGIONS BANK. The Regions Bank what time does regions bank open transfer routing number is 062005690 for any transfers inside of the United States. After you provide a few specific details to identify yourself, a representative will be able to confirm your account’s routing number. Make sure to take note of these numbers, especially the international Wire Transfer routing number. Regions Bank Georgia Routing Number - 061101375. Please call the number next to a routing number below to confirm your Regions Bank Collinsville Facility routing number for wire transfer, reorder checks or setting up direct deposit. Oct 09, 2017 · Here is the image of a check of the Regions Bank where the routing number is given in the left side of the check. You can then choose, 'See full account number' next to your account name and a box will open to display your account and routing number. The routing number is of 9 digits and therefore, it starts from 11 as shown in the image that is for example. Account Number. The ACH routing number will have to be included Nov 04, 2005 · Regions Bank A routing number is a nine digit code, used in the United States to identify the financial institution. GET DIRECTIONS. 061101375 – Georgia. BOX 681,BIRMINGHAM, AL - 35201, Telephone : 800-734-4667 Apr 29, 2021 · The ACH routing number for Regions Bank is 062000019. For International Wire Transfer: 062005690. Sometimes, banks have multiple routing numbers for different branches or uses. Zip. For Wire Transfer Routing Number: 062000019. Busey Bank Checking Routing Number. The checking and saving account routing number and the ACH routing number for PNC varies state by state, you can find these in the table above. 111900785. It's also referred to as RTN, routing transit number or bank routing number. Short for Automatic Clearing House, ACH numbers are unique to each bank in the US. Tennessee. Sep 03, 2021 · Regions Alabama Routing Number: 062000019. Regions Bank’s online transfer FAQ is located here. To see whether a check is a local or a nonlocal check, look at the routing number on the check: Personal Check Business Check If the first four digits of the routing number (1234 in the examples above) are (list of local numbers), then the check is a local check. Otherwise, the check is a nonlocal check. Virginia. Please call the number next to a routing 230 c to f below to confirm your Regions Bank Godfrey Branch routing number for wire transfer, reorder checks or setting up direct deposit. The business offers services such as retail banking, commercial banking, trust, stock brokerage, and mortgage. For wire transfers inside of the United States, the routing number is 062005690. Routing number 071109338 is assigned to ILLINOIS NATIONAL BANK located in SPRINGFIELD, IL. In the example, you would use 34 to determine your routing number using the chart below. O. The real-time regions bank routing number in the USA is a world-class example of banking safety and cybersecurity. Texas. This number system is used by the US banks for carrying out Automatic Clearing House and wire transfers. Please call the number next to a routing number below to confirm your Regions Bank Wood River Branch routing number for wire transfer, reorder checks or setting up direct deposit. Regions Bank Routing Numbers Regions Financial Corporation is a bank holding company with headquarters in Birmingham, Alabama, in the Regions Centre. Sep 29, 2021 · If you have a U. You will be using this address for any wire transfers even if you bank at a different location. For ACH transfers to any Regions Bank account, you would need an ACH routing number. You see, the routing number or the ABA routing number is available on your checkbook. Regions Bank Iowa Routing Number - 073900438. Bank any time at 800-872-2657 to find the routing number for your account. Regions Bank's routing number (the leftmost number on the bottom of a check) is 53012029. Routing Number of Regions Bank. Bank Name. Aug 11, 2020 · When making a Regions Bank wire transfer, you’ll need to use routing number 062005690 and also supply the bank’s name, your name and account number, and address: Regions Bank. The ACH number and your bank account number are used by banks and transfer apps like Zelle or Cash App to identify the exact account payments should be taken from and sent to. Regions Bank’s customer service number is 800-734-4667. Regions Bank Indiana Routing Number - 074014213. Wire transfers made outside of the United States to a USA account have a routing number of 062005690. Belleville, Illinois 62226 There are several routing numbers for Regions Bank reported in our bank database. Regions Bank allows users to transfer funds in many ways, including by wire transfer, Western Union, or through Personal Pay, a streamlined transfer service operated by Popmoney. Routing numbers to Regions Bank in Belleville are collected manually from the banks official website or provided by the Federal Reserve Financial Services Database. Please call the number next to a routing number below to confirm your Regions Bank Belleville Main Branch routing number for wire transfer, reorder checks or setting up direct deposit. Thus, these routing numbers are on the left most side of the below corner of the check. Birmingham, AL 35203. Find your routing and account number by signing in to chase. While sending a domestic ACH transfer in a Regions Bank account, you will need to use the ACH routing number, which differs from state to state. Routing Number. Bank checking account, you can also find your routing number on a check — the check routing number is the first nine numbers in the lower left corner. . Copy to Clipboard. Routing number : 081001387, Institution Name : REGIONS BANK, Delivery Address : P. 053201814 – South Carolina. The routing number of the Regions Bank is the customary 9-digit number, which is needed for setting up several kinds of banking transactions like the direct deposits, wire transfers, electronic payments, etc. valid routing number. Routing numbers are used by Federal Reserve Banks to process Fedwire funds transfers, and ACH(Automated Clearing House) direct deposits, bill payments, and other automated transfers. Also ask questions and discuss related issues here. to the correct bank branch. 74014213. 1900 Fifth Avenue North. com and choosing the last four digits of the account number that appears above your account information. What is the Regions Bank routing number of Illinois? The Regions Bank routing number of Illinois is 071122661. Click here to find U. Wood River, Illinois 62095 There are several routing numbers for Regions Bank reported in our bank database. You can find your account number in the top of the right column of a bank statement. 062202150. Jun 25, 2020 · You can find your Regions Bank routing number on its website or by doing one of the following: Call customer service. Sep 30, 2021 · Regions Routing Numbers for Wire Transfers. Routing/Transit/RTN number is a nine-digit code that is used to identify financial institution involved in a transaction. The SWIFT code for wire transfers made outside of the United States is UPNBUS44. It is also important that you ensure the Regions Bank routing number of your account in Illinois is correct and safe to be used in all the possible ways and for all kids of transfers. Is 043000096 a PNC routing number? 043000096 is the domestic and international wire transfer routing number for PNC. Please make sure this is the correct routing number for your branch! Today we are going to provide you with the regions bank routing numbers of Florida, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Texas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and many more. Routing Numbers, also known as ABA Numbers or Routing Transfer Numbers are 9 digit numbers used by the banking system in the United States for identifying banks and financial institutions. Routing Number for Regions Bank in Illinois A routing number is a 9 digit code for identifying a financial institute for the purpose of routing of checks (cheques), fund transfers, direct deposits, e-payments, online payments, etc. 515405. Bank: REGIONS BANK: Routing Number : 081001387: Telegraphic name : UPB BELLEVILLE IL: City : SAINT LOUIS: State : MO: Funds transfer status : eligible: Funds Mar 03, 2018 · Regions Routing Numbers: The transfers that are made through the wire, paper or electronic became even more accessible by the Region Banks. Address. 071122661 – Illinois. Sep 03, 2021 · Illinois: 071000013: Indiana: 074000010: Kentucky: 083000137: You may also check our website for a separate discussion on Regions routing number, Wells Fargo Sep 28, 2021 · Head to the Account Information and Settings menu to find your account’s routing number. 34 corresponds to the routing number 074000078. The states that are not appointed with any unique routing number uses 091000022 as the routing number for recording transactions location-wise. S. One can do fund transfers or direct deposits through this Routing Number. Call Customer Service: Call PNC Bank at (888) 762-2265. Get Regions Bank routing numbers, swift codes, locations, financial information and etc on 58 branches in IL. You might not have a check handy, however, so you can also call U. 051009296. There is a lot of reasons as to why the Routing Numbers of the bank is necessary for the transfer of funds. Feb 10, 2021 · Regions Bank Arkansas Routing Number - 082000109. ABA routing number 071109338 is used to facilitate ACH funds transfers and Fedwire funds transfers. The Routing Number is also termed as the routing transit number or RTN, ABA number, and ACH number. Regions Bank [REGIONS BK] P. What Is a Routing Number? A routing number is a nine-digit code on checks and is sometimes referred to as the ABA number or check routing number. [info] 4/19/2011. The SWIFT code for Regions Bank is UPNBUS44. 053012029 – North Carolina. Below is a list of Banks with ACH Departments in the State of IL. Regions’ routing number for wire transfers Regions Bank routing number for ACH transfers. Bank: REGIONS BANK: Routing Number : 081001387: Telegraphic name : UPB BELLEVILLE IL: City : SAINT LOUIS: State : MO: Funds transfer status : eligible: Funds Sep 30, 2021 · Regions’ routing number for wire transfers is 062005690, and international wire transfer routing number is UPNBUS44. Please refer to the Miscellaneous Deposit Fees section in the Regions Pricing Schedule for a complete list of wire transfer fees. In Illinois, the ACH routing number is the same, also being 071122661. Bank routing numbers in other states. Please note: Beginning on April 23, 2021, Busey resumed sending Notices of Change (NOCs) to the companies with whom customers have established automatic payments or deposits using legacy routing numbers, advising them to update the routing number to 071102568. 073900438 – Iowa. You’ll supply the bank’s name, your name and account number, and the following bank address: Regions Bank. 074014213 – Indiana. A routing number is a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks that is used to facilitate the electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. Your Regions transit/routing number is the first 9 digits located at the bottom corner of your deposit slips and/or checks. Jul 19, 2020 · Look up Bank Routing Numbers by Bank Name or State. Regions Bank Routing Number for ACH transfers. Complete list of the 1,325 Regions Bank locations with address, financial information, reviews, routing numbers etc. 082000109 – Arkansas. Aug 27, 2021 · Here is a list of Regions Bank routing numbers for each state where the institution operates. routing number regions il


Источник: http://thewestfieldfair.com/cgjl/routing-number-regions-il.html

Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Latin America and Caribbean Regions

Latin America is a region with vast renewable energy resources and an enormous potential to further increase their shares of renewable energy technologies. According to estimations by IRENA, Latin America and the Caribbean requires investments of USD 118 billion each year in renewable power generation, energy efficiencies, electrification of heat, transportation, and power grids to be in line with the Paris Agreement’s objectives.

Conscious of this need, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) have launched the Energy Transition Accelerator Financing (ETAF) Platform. An inclusive, multi-stakeholder climate finance solution managed by IRENA to advance the energy transition across the Agency’s 166-strong membership. The UAE committed USD 400 million in funding provided by the Abu Dhabi Fund for Development (ADFD) toward the platform’s goal of securing a minimum of USD 1 billion in total funding to be deploy by 2030.

In this context, IRENA, ETAF’s management, and the Interamerican Development Bank (IDB) are organising a two-day regional virtual event to showcase the ETAF Platform and discuss the current environment for the financing renewable technologies in the region from the perspectives of project proponents, government representatives, Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs), and other climate finance platform initiatives focused on emerging markets and the Latin America and Caribbean region. Day two of the event will highlight the investments required for the further decarbonisation of the region’s economies, as well as novel options that help facilitate climate finance.

Closed event (by invitation only)


Источник: https://irena.org/events/2021/Dec/Financing-Renewable-Energy-Projects-in-LAC

pnc bank full name You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 888-762-2265. Check or statement - PNC-issued check or bank statement. PNC online banking - You’ll be able to get your PNC routing number by logging into online banking. Fill Out the Online Application or Apply in Person. Moreno Valley, CA 92553. Account fees are easily waived by meeting account balance or direct deposit requirements. PNC vacated the building in 2013. $5 monthly service charge unless you have 1) $300 monthly average monthly balance, or 2) if you are under 18 years old, or 3) set up an Auto Savings transfer of $25 or more each month from your PNC Checking account to your Savings account. The Bank: Name: PNC Bank: What time does regions bank open Commercial Lending Specialization: Established: 1804-01-01: FDIC Insurance: 1934-01-01: Holden By: Pnc Finl Services Group Inc: Charter Class: Commercial bank, national (federal) charter and Fed member, supervised by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) # of Branches: 2139, view all, what time does regions bank open PNC. PNC Bank has 2407 banking locations. Benefits and Features. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 256-751-5000. Read PNC Bank Review Benefits and Features; Savings: 0. Banks Commercial & Savings Banks Loans. Find 31 listings related to Pnc Bank Branch Locations in Chambersburg on What time does regions bank open. Each of these institutions had served diverse markets so that merger creating PNC also became the largest bank in Pennsylvania. PNC Bank asked that I pay in full and when I requested a hardship modification in -/-/- they sent it to me on -/-/2015. The name PNC is an acronym for Palmerston North City He went to Awatapu College. PNC is the product of a merger of two distinguished Pennsylvania banks in 1983: Pittsburgh National Corporation and Provident National Corporation based in Philadelphia. You may also call us at 1-800-282-7541. Fort Bend County. PNC provides. Hickory office is located at 34 Second Street, Nw, Hickory. Find PNC Bank locations near you. The bank’s fixed rates start at 6. PNC Bank. Here is a list of the 50 most common banks that routingtool.Bourbonnais. The assigned Fed RSSD ID of PNC Bank is 817824. On the website SwiftcodesDB, We have extended and updated database of the SWIFT Codes, below are the SWIFT Code for the Bank PNC BANK, N. 24010 Sunnymead Blvd. PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. 54 percent in some ZIP codes, but 46 PNC Bank Branch locations in Cincinnati, OH. Anyway find any other bank PNC cant even handle getting equipment returned. Bourbonnais office is located at 425 Main Street, N. Click on the bank name to find out the full bank details i. The firm grew and changed its name several times. Get the name change form for the SSA and your state DMV, if they have one. It could be a particularly strong fit for those who want: To open both a savings atm piggy bank how to make checking Oct 28, 2021 · 6) If PNC mails the check again, repeat the steps 4 and 5. His unofficial single "Day in the Life" stayed at number one on the Bfm charts for three weeks. However, when there are times that I needed to come in person, this PNC bank would be my go to location. It took me 3 weeks and eventually having to stop playing so nice to get a response. address, contact numbers etc. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 828-645-2300. e. As of 2020, PNC operates over 2,300 branches in 22 states. Looking for online definition of PNC or what PNC stands for? PNC is listed in the World's largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms The Free Dictionary SAMPLE COMPANY Address City, State ZIP Phone PNC BANK 500 FIRST AVENUE PITTSBURGH, PA 15219 55-194/212 0000 11/23/2021 C0000C A021201943A 0000000000C All banks are covered, not just some. There are 3 diffrent Bank branches for the Bank PNC BANK, N. Is PNC a how do e tickets work at the airport bank? The bottom line: PNC Bank is the seventh-largest bank in the country by assets. Saturday, the suspect entered the bank and robbed it without showing any weapons, the Keyport Police Department said in a 24010 Sunnymead Blvd. View hours, phone numbers, reviews, routing numbers, and other info. 0. No matter how…. Bellow, you can find the the bank of greene county with complete contact information about PNC Bank in Hermitage, Pennsylvania, including its working hours, address, phone, website, etc. (951) 787-0880. When I contacted PNC Bank they indicated I had 30 days to complete it and that my representative was - @. Include your name and account number, the dollar amount of the error, and a description of what you believe is wrong and why you believe it is a mistake. Section 3: Indicate if you are already registered with PNC. Sam Hansen better known by his stage name PNC is a New Zealand Hip hop rapper. It could be a particularly strong fit for those who want: To open both a savings and checking May 17, 2021 · PNC Bank is a full-service bank that offers a variety of savings options for its customers. I was told to just get a free box at either fed ex or usps to ship back-ya know the kind that cost over 20 bucks. No matter how simple or complicated your needs, we're sure to have the products, knowledge and resources necessary for financial success. By the mid-20th century, it had become Pittsburgh National Corp. Nov 22, 2021 · Find all the latest PNC Bank promotions, bonuses, and offers here. W. When I reviewed the documentation is does n't have - 's name or due date. Review: 413 client reviews. (310) 632-6691. Hartselle office is located at 589 Highway 31, Northwest, Hartselle. It also has a full array of online and mobile banking tools, making it a good fit for checking Feb 19, 2021 · PNC offers unsecured personal loans that range from $1,000 to $35,000 and repayment terms of six to 60 months in some states. Its banking subsidiary, PNC Bank, operates in 27 states and the District of Columbia, with 2,945 branches and 9,051 ATMs. Fedwire - You can look up your routing number on the official website of the Federal Reserve. C. Puskar) PHOENIX (3TV/CBS 46 PNC Bank Branch locations in Cincinnati, OH. My name is -- and I am applying to be a teller in one of your branch locations. We waited in the post-office for 40 minutes just by sending the initiating letter to receiving bank. PNC offers a wide range of services for all our customers, from individuals and small businesses, to corporations and government entities. What is included in net working capital 5 – In the Boxes labeled “Address” and “City, State, Zip Code,” enter your Full Address as it is reported with PNC Bank. PNC Bank currently operates with 2311 branches located in 22 states. PNC Bank Bourbonnais branch operates as a full service brick and mortar office. The bank has most branches in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New Jersey, Maryland and Florida. PNC Bank is the fifth-largest bank in the United States in terms of total number of branches. Nov 23, 2021 · SHELBY -- The Shelby Police are seeking the public's help in capturing a suspect in connection with a bank robbery on Tuesday morning. Teller. Filter by location to see a Pnc Bank Teller salaries in your area. Their corporate headquarters is listed as: 222 Delaware Avenue in Wilmington Delaware. is one of the largest diversified financial services institutions in the United States, organized around its customers and communities for strong relationships and local delivery of retail and business banking including a full range of lending products; specialized services for corporations and PNC's $11. Enclose a photocopy of any legal documents supporting a change of name: Section 2: Write your present address and permanent address with full detail. Depending on their location, customers can earn up to a $300 sign-up bonus with a checking, short-term savings and Jun 22, 2021 · Contacting PNC Bank - by phone or otherwise. As a customer of PNC Bank, I am impressed by the consistency and care of the bank tellers. Today, PNC Bank is the seventh-largest bank in the U. Banking often gets painted as an industry of liars and crooks due to the recession, but I think most people use to broad a brush. Apr 15, 2021 · Victims claim scammers opened PNC bank accounts in their name. com customers look up: May 17, 2021 · PNC Bank is a full-service bank that offers a variety of savings options for its customers. PNC Bank NA - Bay Minette Branch Full Service, brick and mortar office the sender must provide his bank name and account number of the recipient, the receiving Jun 02, 2021 · PNC Bank announced on June 1 the completion of its acquisition of BBVA USA, which operates 39 branches within the Phoenix metro and has branches in 27 cities across Arizona. PNC Bank BB&T Bank; SPECIAL OFFER Virtual Wallet with Performance Select Checking - $300 Cash Bonus - Learn More. Upon closing, PNC intends to merge RBC Bank (USA) into PNC Bank, N. Sugar Land, TX 77479. I have been banking with PNC since my very first baby bank account. . PNC expects to retain most of RBC Bank (USA) customer-facing employees and sees opportunities to add new positions as it extends its full breadth The bottom line: PNC Bank is the seventh-largest bank in the country by assets. m. The next best way to talk to their customer support teamaccording to other PNC Bank customers, is by calling their 800-523-8654 phone number for their Mortgage Department Oct 15, 2021 · BBVA customers in metro Phoenix frustrated by transition to PNC Bank. PNC Bank traces its roots to the Pittsburgh Trust and Savings Co. She said one was a letter from PNC Weaverville office is located at 81 Weaver Boulevard, Weaverville. pnc. PNC Bank Hartselle branch operates as a full service brick and mortar office. For lobby hours, drive-up hours and online banking services please visit the official website of the bank at www Nov 13, 2021 · KEYPORT - Police are looking for a person believed to have robbed the PNC Bank located within the Stop and Shop along Route 36, according to authorities. 26 reviews of PNC Bank "Get to the Chase: Pros: 1) Your standard bank, no hassles, quick service, and friendly staff 2) Not busy at all, always enough tellers and staff 3) Clean and edmond low library 4) A large cash withdrawal not available via atm, was easily and quickly done in 10 minutes by the tellers Cons: 1) Probably the only PNC branch accessible in Manhattan. The bottom line: PNC Bank is the seventh-largest bank in the country by assets. Easy Name Change helps by providing ready to send name change forms, letters and emails for all the necessary companies. citizen or not. The building-name change comes as PNC Bank’s acquisition of RBC Bank (USA), subject to customary closing conditions. At around 1:05 p. Aug 23, 2021 · My PNC Bank Review A Brief History. PNC Bank can trace its history back to 1852 and the Pittsburgh Trust and Savings Co. Nov 20, 2015 · Bank Name : PNC Bank NA: SWIFT Code for PNC Bank NA: PNCCUS33: Routing Transit Number: Find your Routing Number based on the region where you opened your bank account: Bank address, City & State : PNC Bank NA 222 Delaware Avenue, Wilmington, DE 19899 (regardless of where your account is located) Beneficiary Account Number : Your complete PNC Nov 01, 2021 · PNC Bank Personal Loans Review. You can also contact the bank by calling the branch phone number at 815-935-3880. The first thing you’ll need to do is answer whether you are a U. Depending on their location, customers can earn up to a $300 sign-up bonus with a checking, short-term savings and Step 3 – Next you will need to enter your full Name in the box labeled “Name. Aug 09, 2017 · Example #1: "I always have a great experience whenever I visit one of your branches. Lynwood, CA 90262. If you need to call PNC Bank in Hermitage, PA, here is the phone number: 17249813816. Regions Bank’s CDs and savings account are another great way to save, but their rates may not be the best. Dec 18, 2020 · PNC Bank wire transfer instructions. {{metaInformation}} That means you should update the SSA first, followed by your state DMV and then your PNC Bank account. pnc bank full name

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current codes bank A current bank account is one of the primary requirements for starting a business. 11 Eco mobile banking. We have teamed-up. DBS/POSB Transaction Codes & Descriptions Understand the meaning of the different transaction codes and descriptions in your statement. Wwe money in the bank 2014 will have to update their IFSC and MICR codes before this date. GET OFFER. The current account number consists of 11 digits, IFS Code consists of 9 digits, together with other identifications of the bank and the branch shall be the same until notified further. Qualifying direct deposit must be regular monthly income, such as salary or pension payments. Bank offers change throughout the year, but their past offers include $300, $400, $800 bonuses when opening a new Checking, Savings or Business Account. ¹Faster access to funds is based on comparison of traditional banking policies and deposit of paper checks from employers and government agencies The current account number consists of 11 digits, IFS Code consists of 9 digits, together with other identifications of the bank and the branch shall be the same until notified further. It is a standard format of Business Identifier Codes (BIC). Current and historical data. Doing more for you—whether online or in the Synchrony Bank app—to keep you in control no matter what. CODES (3 days ago) The latest ones are on Aug 29, 2021. A SWIFT/BIC is an 8-11 character code that identifies your country, city, bank, and branch. Nov 17, 2021 · Open your Bank of America checking account online using the promo code DDX100CIS. Sort codes are the domestic bank codes used to route money transfers between financial institutions in the United Kingdom, and in the Republic of Ireland. But if you don’t want to bother searching for codes on sites, you can bookmark this page or our site for more information. The first two letters of these codes are usually what time does regions bank open with the two-letter ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 country codes, which are well-known by internet users, as they are used for A SWIFT code is a code used to identify the country, bank and branch that an account is registered to. A stored code P2237 means that the powertrain control module (PCM) has detected a positive current discrepancy in the upstream oxygen (O2) sensor for engine bank number one. A. Nov 09, 2021 · The latest US Bank promotions, bonuses, and offers are available here. Location code 0-9 A-Z 2 characters made up of letters or numbers. All coupons and promo codes are time limited. 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How to get it: Open your first Online Savings Account and use offer code NW21 when applying. The positive current control circuit is a low voltage Dec 30, 2012 · Response codes are supplied by the merchant’s bank to your payment gateway provider after making contact with the customer’s card issuer. Current is a mobile-focused online bank that offers a checking account and debit card. 5 FCMB USSD bank transfer code. Bank routing number chart below. You will get more technical details with screenshots of each of these SAP FI-BL tcodes by clicking on tcode name link. For example, Great Britain's National Westminster Bank uses GB 29 NWBK 601613 31926819. Don't forget to try all the Discover bank Promo Codes to get the biggest Regions Bank Promotions. What you'll get: $150 or $200. 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All Regions Bank checking accounts offer free online banking, bill pay, and mobile deposits. for chores and tasks. Find out if your bank has merged or been acquired. Visit our site and get amazing products at affordable prices! Status: Trusted Contributor. It's the first set of numbers printed on the bottom of your checks, on the left side. It usually looks like a shortened version of that bank's name. Local bank codes are managed by a central bank, a bank supervisory body or a Bankers Association in a country. 19 What time does regions bank open Available 2 Coupon Codes 17 Sales. Jul 04, 2000 · Allottment of bank codes is centralised at the office of the Chief General Manager in-Charge, Department of Information Technology, Reserve Bank of India, Central Office, Shahid Bhagat Singh Marg, Mumbai-400001. No Swipe Machine Required. Enter the 4-digit Personal Identification Number (PIN) for the selected debit card. 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A ‘current account’ is a type of bank account most people use for day-to-day personal finances. The current IFSC code and MICR codes of the Corporation Bank or Andhra Bank will change and all the transactions through NEFT, RTGS, ECS, NACH, etc done with the current IFSC and MICR Codes can be used only till March 31, 2021. ADS! Download JAMB CBT Software Now for FREE! Zenith Bank Swift Code – The Zenith Bank SWIFT code solution offers corporate customers a platform to initiate payment instructions from their ERP. There are 2,200 ATMS across 16 states. Cheque deposits and cash deposits are to be made in the branches of the parent banks. 12 new current bank app promo code results have been found in the last 90 days, which means that every 8, a new current bank app promo code result is figured out. Banking anywhere, anytime. with Aceable to offer. {Fax No. The payment instruction is transmitted to Zenith Bank via the SWIFT network. 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KYZYL, Russia -- Nadezhda Sat's story is a familiar one to residents of the south Siberian region of Tyva. Ten years ago, she took out a loan to buy a car.

"There are expenses in Tyva that you simply must get a loan for," she told RFE/RL's Russian Service. "Such as a car. Public transportation is very bad -- we don't have commuter trains or trams or trolley buses. Even the normal buses run sporadically. And to simply save up money and buy a car is not realistic, particularly since cars keep getting more expensive."

The reason Sat – who lives in the regional capital, Kyzyl, a city of some 110,000 about 3,600 kilometers east of Moscow -- needed a car was that her son's kindergarten was 10 kilometers from her home.

"We also have big problems with kindergartens, " she explained. "When we were finally able to get a spot, we had to take it. Pinnacle bank colorado locations there isn't any public transport there, so I had to take a loan to buy a car. I got a used one, a foreign make, and paid for five years."

Then her daughter finished school, and Sat knew there were no opportunities for her higher education in Tyva. She took another loan to send her daughter to an institute in another region.

"So, for 10 years, I paid loans for a car and to send my daughter to an institute," Sat said, adding that she and her husband paid about 40 percent of their combined monthly income to meet the payments.

As far as the last figure goes, Sat may have been lucky. A recent study by the pro-Kremlin All-Russia Popular Front (ONF) found that Tyva is the most indebted region of Russia, with locals on average paying 78 percent of their income to cover their debts.

"The level of indebtedness in Tyva, if it is 78 percent, what is thinkorswim td ameritrade truly fantastic," said Valery Mironov, a professor of economics at the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences in Moscow, adding that the same study found the national average indebtedness to be an already-worrying 35 percent. "And that shocking figure came from a pretty serious study. Indebtedness of 40 percent is already quite bad, and here they have found 78 percent. That means essentially that for every 10,000 rubles ($133) of salary they receive, they pay 8,000 ($107) on their debts."

One-Third Of Population Below 'Survival Minimum'

Elmana Mekhtiyeva, president of the National Association of Professional Debt Collectors, told RFE/RL that the situation in Tyva is particularly worrying because wages there are so low.

"Tyva really has always been one of the regions with particularly high rates of indebtedness," she said. "So the situation is not new, but it definitely deserves attention."

Tyva is Russia's most impoverished region.

The ONF study was based on figures from the Central Bank, the government statistics agency Rosstat, and major banks.

Additionally, according to the Labor Ministry in August, Tyva has the country's highest poverty rate, with 34.1 percent of the population living below the official "survival minimum." The national 7 keys to the kingdom of heaven, according to a Rosstat report in April, was 12.1 percent.

The average wage in Tyva is about 37,000 rubles ($495) a month, and the official unemployment rate is nearly 12 percent.

Dogs wander the streets of Kyzyl's ramshackle Shanghai district where many people live in dilapidated accommodation without water, sewage, or heating.

"Essentially, people are just surviving," local resident Ayana Khruma told RFE/RL. "If they want to improve their standard of living even just a little -- get a new refrigerator or a washing machine – they need a loan…. It takes a decent sum to get children ready for the school year or to buy winter clothes. It is very hard. They aren't taking loans to buy a new Toyota or an Audi…. People take loans for almost everything because they simply have no money."

She added that people in small towns and villages are often reduced to getting loans to buy food, particularly when salaries and social payments are delayed. "The situation is very difficult," Khruma said.

Indebtedness Treadmill

The microlending industry in the region is booming, with the corresponding high interest rates.

"Microloans are advertised very aggressively," explained another local woman, Ayana Mongush. "They promise loans at 1 percent, but not everyone understands that they mean 1 percent per day. But people are just tired of not being able to buy anything, tired of living from paycheck to paycheck. So they take the loans without thinking about what will come next."

According to one analyst, many people in Kyzyl and other parts of Tyva fall into debt because of the region's poor infrastructure and social services.

Kyzyl resident Chechek Saryglar got on the indebtedness treadmill in 2008. For years, she paid half of her 20,000 ruble ($270) monthly salary to the bank. Some months, she couldn't make the payments and resorted to microloans. When she missed payment on them, the interest rates skyrocketed, and debt collectors began to hound her.

"They would call day and night," she recalled. "'We know where you live. We know your family. Go and sell a kidney.'"

"I began drinking," she admitted, adding that thoughts of suicide also crossed her mind.

Now she is living with her second husband and has quit drinking. Earlier this year, she finished paying her bank loan, but she is still dealing with the micro-lenders.

"I borrowed 50,000 and need to pay back 100,000 rubles," she said. "But it is easier now. We have a total monthly income of 40,000 rubles -- our salaries, plus what I can earn from sewing and crafts. And my older children have moved out and support themselves. I still have debts and the collectors still call about them, but it doesn't bother me as much."

Mironov said that many people in Tyva, like Nadezhda Sat, fall into debt because of the region's poor infrastructure and social services. In 2020, the region contributed what time does regions bank open billion ($93 million) rubles to its budget and received an additional 18 billion ($240 million) from Moscow. The region has no railways, which raises the prices of all goods and makes businesses reluctant to open there.

"What can the government do to support such a region?" he said. "The government can at the very least ensure that basic social services are provided at a normal level -- that is, at a level that lets people use them without added difficulties. I'm talking primarily about health care and education."

Meanwhile, the region's debt problems are mounting.

"The main thing is to make your payments and not ruin your credit," Khuruma said. "And then you can buy something to eat."

RFE/RL senior correspondent Robert Coalson contributed to this report
​Источник: https://www.rferl.org/a/russia-tyva-poverty-debt/31583681.html

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