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Python interface: PyROOT

With PyROOT, ROOT’s Python-C++ bindings, you can use ROOT from Python. PyROOT is HEP’s entrance to all C++ from Python, for example, for frameworks and their steering code. The PyROOT bindings are automatic and dynamic: no pre-generation of Python wrappers is necessary.

With PyROOT you can access the full ROOT functionality from Python while benefiting from the performance of the ROOT C++ libraries.

PyROOT is compatible with both Python2 (>= 2.7) and Python3.

The usage of PyROOT requires working knowledge of Python.
For detailed information on Python, refer to the Python Language Reference.

Together with ROOT 6.22, a major revision of PyROOT has been released. The new PyROOT has extensive support for modern C++ (it operates on top of cppyy), is more pythonic and is able to interoperate with widely-used Python data-science libraries (for example, NumPy, pandas, Numba).
Therefore, we strongly recommend to use the new PyROOT.

→ PyROOT tutorials

Getting started

When ROOT is installed, you can use PyROOT both from the Python prompt and from a Python script. The entry point to PyROOT is the module, which you must import first:

Then you can access the ROOT C++ classes, functions, etc. via the module.

Example

This examples shows how you can create a histogram (an instance of the TH1F class) and randomly fill it with a gaussian distribution.

Interactive graphics

Just like from C++, you can also create interactive ROOT graphics from Python with PyROOT.

Example

A one-dimensional function is created and drawn:

When the above code is executed from the Python prompt, a new canvas opens and displays the drawn function:

Figure: Example of graphics generated with PyROOT.

Note

You can also write the above code in a script file and execute it with Python. In that case, the script runs to completion and the Python process is terminated, so the generated canvas disappears.
If you want to keep the Python process alive and thus inspect your canvas, execute the script with:

User interface

Besides being the entry point to all ROOT functionality, the module also provides an interface to configure PyROOT and to manipulate PyROOT objects at a lower level.

Configuration options

After importing the ROOT module, you can access the PyROOT configuration object as . Such an object has a set of properties that you can modify to steer the behaviour of PyROOT. For the configuration to be taken into account, it needs to be applied right after the module is imported.

Example

The available configuration options are:

  • (default ): Just like in C++, PyROOT also supports rootlogon. When PyROOT starts, it looks for a file called in the user’s home directory. If such file exists, PyROOT imports it. You can use it to make some settings every time PyROOT is launched, for example, defining some style for your plots:

If PyROOT cannot find in the user’s home directory, it looks for the equivalent in C++ (), first in ROOT’s etc directory, then in the user’s home directory and finally in the current working directory.

Note that it is also possible to use both the Python and the C++ rootlogons, since the latter can be loaded from the former, for example with .

If you want to disable the rootlogon functionality, set to .

  • (default ): If a PyROOT script is run with some command line arguments, ROOT ignores them by default, so you can process them as you wish. However, by setting to , those arguments are forwarded to ROOT for parsing, for example, to enable the batch mode from the command line.
    For a complete list of the arguments accepted by ROOT, → see Starting ROOT with command line options.

  • (default ): When the application is finished, more precisely during PyROOT’s cleanup phase, the ROOT C++ interpreter is shut down by default.
    If PyROOT is executed as part of a longer-running application that needs the C++ interpreter, you can set to to prevent that shutdown.

  • (default ): Unless executed from IPython, a Jupyter notebook or in interactive mode, PyROOT starts a thread that periodically polls for ROOT events (for example GUI events) to process them. If a given PyROOT application does not need this event processing, you can prevent the creation of the thread by setting to .

Enabling batch mode

When running in batch mode, PyROOT does not display any graphics. You can activate the batch mode as follows:

  1. Pass as a command line argument, for example, .
    For this to work, you must set to inside the PyROOT script, see → Configuration options.

  2. Call in the PyROOT script, right after importing :

Low-level manipulation of objects

When instantiating a C++ class from Python via PyROOT, both a C++ object and its Python proxy object are created. Such a Python object forwards any access to its internal C++ object, thus acting as a proxy. PyROOT provides functions to inspect or manipulate Python proxies and their C++ counterparts, based on the functionality provided by cppyy.
You can access these functions with the pattern as follows:

  • : When applied to a Proxy object , it returns an indexable buffer of length 1, whose only element is the address of the C++ object proxied by . The address of the buffer is the same as the address of the address of the C++ object. This function is kept for backwards compatibility with old PyROOT versions.

  • : Similarly to , you can use it to obtain the address of an internal C++ object from its Python proxy. However, returns that address as an integer, not as an indexable buffer. Furthermore, accepts two more parameters: and . You can use to specify the name of a field in a struct, in order to get the address of that field. If you set to , returns the address of the address of the C++ object. This function is equivalent to cppyy’s .

Example

Moreover, you can use in conjunction with from Python as shown in ttree_branch.py.

  • : Equivalent to cppyy’s .

  • : Equivalent to cppyy’s .

  • : Equivalent to , it returns a proxy object of the class represented by that is bound to a C++ null pointer.
    For example, returns a proxy object that internally points to null. This function is kept for backwards compatibility with old PyROOT versions.

  • : A Python proxy can either own or not own its internal C++ object. If a Python proxy owns its C++ object and the proxy is being destroyed, the C++ object is deleted too. This ownership can be modified for a given Python proxy with .
    For example, by calling , you make sure that the C++ object proxied by is not deleted by PyROOT when is garbage collected. This is useful for example, if you know that the deletion will happen in C++ and you want to prevent a double delete.
    Use this functionality with care not to produce any memory leaks.

Loading user libraries and Just-In-Time compilation (JITting)

With PyROOT you can use any C++ library from Python, not only the ROOT libraries. This is possible because of the automatic and dynamic bindings between Python and C++ that PyROOT provides. Without any prior generation of wrappers, at execution time, PyROOT can load C++ code and call into it.

This enables you to write high-performance C++, compile it and use it from Python. The following options are available, ordered by complexity and performance:

Just-in-time compilation of small strings

ROOT has a C++ interpreter, which can process C++ code. Sometimes such a code is short, e.g. for the definition of a small function or a class or for rapid exploration or debugging. To do this, place the C++ code in a Python string, which is passed to the interpreter. The code is just-in-time compiled (jitted) and it is immediately available for invocation, as shown in the following example. Here, the constructor of the C++ class and the function are called from Python after defining them via the interpreter.

Example

Just-in-time compilation of entire files

If you want to use the C++ code in a header, you can use the interpreter to include and compile it on the fly.

Example

There is a header called with the following content:

In Python, you can access it like this:

You can dynamically load C++ libraries with PyROOT, and call the functions from the library. The advantage of this method is that all code in the library needs to be compiled only once, possibly with optimizations (, ). You can use it again from Python without any further JITting. However, it is necessary to JIT the headers to make the code usable in Python.

Example

With the following header :

and the source file:

you can create the library . In Python, you can load and use it as follows:

Loading C++ libraries with dictionaries

For larger analysis frameworks, one may not want to compile the headers each time the Python interpreter is started. One may also want to read or write custom C++/C objects in ROOT files, and use them with RDataFrame or similar tools.

A large analysis framework might further have multiple libraries. In these cases, you generate ROOT dictionaries, and add these to the libraries, which provides ROOT with the necessary information on how to generate Python bindings on the fly. This is what the large LHC experiments do to steer their analysis frameworks from Python.

  1. Create one or multiple C++ libraries.
    For example create a library as a CMake project that uses ROOT, see → CMake details
  2. [Optional] Add macros for classes that should be read or written from or into files.
  3. Generate a dictionary of all classes that should receive I/O capabilities, i.e. that can be written into ROOT files, see → Generating dictionaries
    Use a file to select which classes or functions ROOT should be included in the dictionary.

    The corresponding cmake instructions would look similar to this:

  4. Implement the C++ side, and compile the library using CMake.
  5. On the Python side, load the libraries with high-performance C++ in one step:

    Note If either ROOT or the headers that were used to create the dictionaries were moved to a different location, and ROOT cannot find them (it returns an error in this case), the location of the headers has to be communicated to ROOT:

    The loading of C++ libraries can even be automated using the of the Python package.

TPython: running Python from C++

With ROOT you can execute Python code from C++ via the TPython class.

The following example shows how you can use to execute a Python statement. is used to evaluate a Python expression and get its result back in C++ and to start an interactive Python session.

Example

For a more complete description of the interface, see → TPython .

JupyROOT: (Py)ROOT for Jupyter notebooks

Jupyter notebooks provide a web-based interface that you can use for interactive computing with ROOT.

How to use ROOT with Jupyter notebooks

Two kernels (or language flavours) allow to run ROOT from Jupyter: Python (2 and 3) and C++. In order to use such kernels, there are mainly two options:

  • Local ROOT installation: to install ROOT locally, see → Installing ROOT.
    In addition to ROOT, two Python packages are required that you can install, for example, with :

When all requirements fulfilled, you can start a Jupyter server with the Python and C++ kernels from a terminal:

  • SWAN: CERN provides an online service to create and run Jupyter notebooks, called SWAN. With this option no installation is required: a browser and a working Internet connection are enough. Both the Python and C++ kernels are available in SWAN.

Many ROOT tutorials are available as Jupyter notebooks. For example, most PyROOT tutorials are listed with two buttons below to obtain their notebook version and to open them in SWAN, respectively.

JavaScript graphics

The ROOT graphics are also available in Jupyter, both in Python and C++. Moreover, you can choose between two modes:

  • Static (default): The graphics are displayed as a static image in the output of the notebook cell.
  • Interactive: The graphics are shown as an interactive JavaScript display. In order to activate this mode, include in a cell. Once enabled, the mode stays on until it is disabled with (i.e. no need to enable it in every cell).

Example

If you execute the above code in a cell, the output shows the following interactive canvas:

Note

The creation and drawing of a canvas are necessary when displaying ROOT graphics in a notebook. If no canvas is drawn in the cell, no graphics output is shown.

New PyROOT: Backwards-incompatible changes

The new PyROOT has the following backwards-incompatible changes with respect to its predecessor:

  • Instantiation of function templates must be done using square brackets instead of parentheses.

Example

Consider the following code snippet:

Note that the above code does not affect class templates, which can be instantiated either with parenthesis or square brackets:

  • Overload resolution in new cppyy has been significantly rewritten, which sometimes can lead to a different overload choice (but still a compatible one).

Example

For example, for the following overloads of :

when invoking , where is a Python string. The new PyROOT picks (2) whereas the old picks (1).

  • The conversion between and C++ pointer types is not allowed anymore. Use instead:
  • Old PyROOT has and to pass integer and floating point numbers by reference. In the new PyROOT, you must use instead.
  • When a character array is converted to a Python string, the new PyROOT only considers the characters before the end-of-string character:
  • Any Python class derived from a base C++ class now requires the base class to define a virtual destructor:
  • There are the following name changes for what concerns cppyy APIs and proxy object attributes:
Old PyROOT/cppyyNew PyROOT/cppyy
cppyy.gbl.MakeNullPointer(klass)cppyy.bind_object(0, klass)
cppyy.gbl.BindObject / cppyy.bind_objectcppyy.bind_object
cppyy.AsCObjectlibcppyy.as_cobject
cppyy.add_pythonizationcppyy.py.add_pythonization
cppyy.compose_methodcppyy.py.compose_method
cppyy.make_interfacecppyy.py.pin_type
cppyy.gbl.nullptrcppyy.nullptr
cppyy.gbl.PyROOT.TPyExceptioncppyy.gbl.CPyCppyy.TPyException
buffer.SetSize(N)buffer.reshape((N,))
obj.__cppname__type(obj).__cpp_name__
obj._get_smart_ptrobj.__smartptr__
callable._createscallable.__creates__
callable._mempolicycallable.__mempolicy__
callable._threadedcallable.__release_gil__
  • New PyROOT does not parse command line arguments by default anymore.
    For example, when running , the argument is not parsed by PyROOT, and therefore the batch mode is not activated. If you want to enable the PyROOT argument parsing again, start your Python script with:
  • In new PyROOT, use to retrieve the address of fields in a .

In old PyROOT, could be used for that purpose too, but its behaviour was inconsistent. returned a buffer whose first position contained the address of object , but returned a buffer whose address was the address of the field, instead of such address being contained in the first position of the buffer.

Note that in the new PyROOT can still be invoked, and it still returns a buffer whose first position contains the address of object .

  • In old PyROOT, there were two C++ classes called and which inherited from and , respectively. The purpose of these classes was to serve as a base class for Python classes that wanted to inherit from the ROOT::Math classes. This allowed to define Python functions that could be used for fitting in Fit::Fitter.
    In the new PyROOT, and do not exist anymore, since their functionality is automatically provided by new cppyy: if a Python class inherits from a C++ class, a wrapper C++ class is automatically generated. That wrapper class redirects any call from C++ to the methods implemented by the Python class.

Example

You can make your Python function classes inherit directly from the ROOT::Math C++ classes.

  • When iterating over an from Python, the elements returned by the iterator are no longer of type Python , but . This is an optimization to make the iteration faster (copies are avoided) and it allows to call modifier methods on the objects.
  • When obtaining the boolean value of a C++ instance proxy, both old and new PyROOT return when such proxy points to null. On the other hand, when the proxy points to a C++ object, old PyROOT just returns , while new PyROOT has slightly modified this behaviour: in new cppyy, if is available, the result of is used to determine truth. This is done to comply with the default Python behaviour, where is tried if is not present (see → object.bool).

Example

The following code shows how the insertion of changes the boolean value of an instance proxy.

  • In new cppyy, buffer objects are represented by the type. If such a buffer points to null, it is not iterable, unlike in the old PyROOT.
    For example, in the following code, returns a null pointer and therefore an exception is thrown when calling :

The code above can be protected by checking for the validity of :

Источник: https://root.cern/manual/python/

Plants can be propagated, or multiplied, in several different ways. Most people are familiar with growing new plants from seeds, but new plants can also be created by cutting off a portion of an established plant. This “cutting” is placed in an environment that encourages it to produce new roots and/or stems, thus forming a new, independent plant.

There are several advantages to propagating plants using cuttings:

  • The new plant will be identical to the parent plant. For example, if the parent plant has variegated (multi-colored) foliage, the new plant grown from the cutting will have the same foliage. If the parent plant is female (as a holly or ginkgo might be), the new plant will also be female. Propagating a plant by cuttings will allow you to keep the special characteristics of that plant. Plants grown from seed will often be different from the parent plant and from each other.
  • Propagating a new plant via cuttings avoids the difficulties of propagating by seed. For example, by using cuttings you could propagate a young tree that has not yet flowered (and thus has not yet produced seed), a male tree, or a sterile plant such as a navel orange. Additionally, some seeds are difficult to germinate, taking two to three years for the seedling to appear.
  • A new plant grown from a cutting will frequently mature faster and flower sooner than a plant grown from a seed.

Types of Cuttings

Cuttings can be made from any part of the plant. Most frequently, however, either a stem or leaf is used. A stem cutting includes a piece of stem plus any attached leaves or buds. Thus, the stem cutting only needs to form new roots to be a complete, independent plant. A leaf cutting uses just the leaf, so both new roots and new stems must be formed to create a new plant.

Stem Cuttings

Stem cuttings can be taken from both herbaceous plants (e.g., garden flowers and houseplants) and woody trees and shrubs. Because the new growth of trees and shrubs hardens as the summer progresses, cuttings taken at different times of the year vary in their ability to form roots. Softwood and herbaceous cuttings are the most likely to develop roots and become independent plants, hardwood cuttings the least likely.

Herbaceous

Stem cuttings from herbaceous plants can be taken any time the plant is actively growing.

Softwood

Softwood cuttings are prepared from soft, succulent new growth of woody plants just as it begins to harden (typically May through July). Shoots at the softwood stage will snap easily when bent. The youngest leaves have not yet reached their mature size.

Semi-hardwood

Semi-hardwood cuttings are taken from the current season’s growth after the wood has matured. The wood is firm and all leaves are full size. This occurs in mid-July to early fall for most plants. Many broadleaf evergreens (e.g., boxwood, holly, rhododendron) can be propagated by semi-hardwood cuttings.

Hardwood

Hardwood cuttings are prepared from shoots that grew the previous summer. They are cut in winter or early spring while the plant is still dormant. The wood is firm and does not bend easily. Some deciduous shrubs and needled evergreens will root from hardwood cuttings.

Leaf Cuttings

Leaf cuttings are prepared by taking a single leaf from the plant. This leaf must generate not only new roots, but new shoots as well. The leaf used for propagation usually does not become part of the new plant, but disintegrates after the new plant is formed. Only a limited number of plants have the ability to produce new roots and shoots from just a leaf.

Root Cuttings

Cuttings taken from roots may also be used but only a few species can be propagated this way. Cuttings are taken when the plant is dormant and the roots contain the most stored energy. Each root produces two to three new stems and each stem then produces its own roots. The original root cutting disintegrates.

Propagation Basics

To successfully propagate plants from cuttings, a number of challenges must be overcome. Once a cutting is severed from the parent plant, it can no longer take up water, and excessive water loss will result in death. The wound from the cut makes it susceptible to diseases. New roots must be formed as rapidly as possible if the new plant is to survive.

Decreasing Water Loss

Start with cuttings that contain as much water as possible. Water the plant well the day before and take the cutting before the heat of the day reduces water content.

Once the cutting is harvested, excessive water loss must be prevented. To minimize water loss:

1. Process the cutting immediately. If this is not possible, stand the cut end in water or place the cutting in a plastic bag with a damp paper towel and store out of direct sun. If the plant is frost-tolerant, store the bagged cutting in the refrigerator.

2. For a stem cutting, remove some of the leaves. Most of the water will be lost through the leaves, so by decreasing the leaf surface you also decrease the amount of water loss. A general rule of thumb is to remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves. Cut remaining leaves in half if they are large.

3. Once the cutting has been prepared and placed in the rooting mix, enclose the pot in a plastic bag. Insert straws or wooden sticks around the edge of the pot to hold the bag away from the cutting. Place the pot in a bright area, but out of direct sunlight, so the leaves will receive the light they need but the plant will not get overly hot. The plastic bag insures that humidity around the leaves remains high, which slows the rate of water loss.

Preventing Disease

Take cuttings only from healthy plants. To prevent the spread of disease, use clean tools and pots (clean with 10% bleach, rinse, and let dry thoroughly). Use fresh soilless potting mix since garden soil can harbor plant diseases.

Encouraging Root Formation

Just like leaves, the roots of plants need air to live. Rooting mix that is continuously waterlogged is devoid of air and cuttings will rot rather than form roots. A mixture of 50% vermiculite/50% perlite holds sufficient air and water to support good root growth, but any well-drained soilless potting mix is acceptable. If your cuttings frequently rot before they root, you know the mix is staying too wet. Add vermiculite or perlite to increase its air- holding capacity.

Cuttings use energy to form new roots. If the cutting has leaves, most of the energy comes from photosynthesis. Expose these cuttings to bright light, but not direct sunlight, during the rooting period. If you use hardwood cuttings that have no leaves, the energy will come from reserves stored in the woody stem. For best results, select shoots that are robust for the species. Since you want all the energy to go into the new roots, make sure you cut off any flowers or fruits that would compete for energy.

Auxin, a naturally occurring plant hormone, stimulates root formation. Several synthetic forms of auxin are sold as “rooting hormone.” Though some plants will root readily without treatment, application of rooting hormone to the base of the cutting will often improve your chance for success. Two synthetic auxins, IBA (indolebutyric acid) and NAA (naphthaleneacetic acid) are most frequently used. They are available in several concentrations and in both liquid and powder form. 1,000 ppm (0.1%) is used most often for herbaceous and softwood cuttings; 3,000 ppm (0.3%) and 8,000 ppm (0.8%) are used for semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings. Liquid formulations can be used at low or high concentration for softwood or hardwood cuttings, respectively. To determine the appropriate concentration for your cutting, follow the instructions on the product label and the general guidelines just given, or consult the references listed at the end of this publication.

To use rooting hormone, place the amount needed in a separate container. Any material that remains after treating the cuttings should be discarded, not returned to the original container. These precautions will prevent contamination of the entire bottle of rooting hormone.

Cuttings will root more quickly and reliably in warm rooting mix. Keep your cuttings between 65°F and 75°F, avoiding excessive heat. If your area is too cold, consider a heating mat or cable especially designed for this purpose.

How to Make Herbaceous and Softwood Stem Cuttings

Many houseplants, annuals, perennials, and woody plants can be propagated by stem cuttings when they are in active growth and the stems are soft.

    1. Cut off a piece of stem, 2-6 inches long. There should be at least three sets of leaves on the cutting.
    2. Trim the cutting in the following way:
      1. Make the bottom cut just below a node (a node is where the leaf and/or the bud joins the stem) (Figure 1).
      2. Remove 1/2 to 2/3 of the leaves, starting from the bottom of the cutting. Cut large leaves in half (Figure 2).
      3. Remove all flowers, flower buds, and fruit.
    3. (optional) Dip the lower inch of the cutting in rooting hormone.
  1. In a pot of damp, but drained, rooting mix, make a hole for the cutting using a pencil. Put the cutting in the hole and firm the rooting mix around it. If any leaves are touching the surface of the mix, trim them back. Several cuttings can be placed in the same pot as long as their leaves do not touch.
  2. Enclose the pot in a plastic bag, making sure the bag does not touch the leaves.
  3. Place the pot in a warm, bright spot but out of direct sunlight. Every few days, check the rooting mix to make sure it is damp, and water as necessary. Discard any water that collects in the bottom of the bag.
  4. After two or three weeks, check to see if roots have formed by working your hand under the cutting and gently lifting (Figure 3). If no roots have formed, or if they are very small, firm the cutting back into the mix, rebag, and check for roots again in one to two weeks.
  5. Once roots have formed, slowly decrease the humidity around the plant by untying the plastic bag and then opening it a little more each day. When it is growing well without a plastic bag, pot in a good quality potting mix and move to its permanent location.

How to Make Semi-hardwood Cuttings

Follow the same steps as described for herbaceous cuttings. Semi-hardwood cuttings may need a higher level of rooting hormone and may take longer to form roots. Wounding the base of the cutting sometimes stimulates root initiation (see Step 5 in “How to Make a Hardwood Cutting” below).

How to Make Hardwood Cuttings

Take hardwood cuttings in winter or early spring. Deciduous plants (those that lose their leaves every winter) have no leaves at this time. Thus, water loss is not a serious problems with these cuttings, unless the buds open. Hardwood cuttings are more difficult to root than softwood cuttings, and it may take two to four months for roots to form. The technique does work well with some shrubs such as forsythia, privet, and willow. Needled evergreens can also be propagated using hardwood cuttings, but care must be taken to reduce water loss.

Preparing Deciduous Hardwood Cuttings

  1. Select a robust stem.
  2. Cut off a length of stem that was formed over the past summer (depending on species, it may be 1-2 feet long).
  3. Trim the cutting in the following way:
    1. Working from the base of the stem, cut just below a node (Figure 4).
    2. With a pencil, gently make a line 2 inches above this cut. The portion of the stem between the cut and the line will be in the rooting mix (Figure 5).
    3. Make a second cut 2-6 inches above the line, making sure that this segment contains at least two buds.
  4. Remove buds from the bottom 2 inches of the stem so they will not grow during the rooting period.
  5. Wound the cutting by removing two 1-inch slices of bark from opposite sides of the base of the stem. Cut deeply enough to expose the green layer under the bark, but not so deeply that the stem is cut in half (Figure 6).
  6. Apply rooting hormone to the lowest 1 inch of stem and place it into damp rooting mix up to the pencil line. Firm the rooting mix around it.
  7. It may be possible to get two to five cuttings from each stem. Repeat steps three through six if the remaining stem is long enough. Make sure you keep track of which end of the cutting is the base and which is the top. The base of the cutting, not the top, should always be the end placed in the rooting mix.
  8. There are now two options, depending on the facilities and equipment available.
    1. If you have a cold garage and a heating system to warm the rooting mix, place the pot on the heating system in the cold garage. The cold air will keep the buds from opening and forming leaves, and the heater will keep the mix warm enough for roots to form (65 to 75°F). It is acceptable for the air temperature to go below freezing as long as the heater can keep the rooting mix between 65°F and 75°F. For information on constructing heated beds, refer to HO-53: Hot Beds and Cold Frames (http://www.hort.purdue.edu/hort/ext/Pubs/HO/HO_053.pdf).
    2. If you do not have a cold garage with a heating system, place the pot in a plastic bag as you would for herbaceous cuttings, and place in a warm room. In two or three weeks the buds will open, but the plastic bag should keep humidity around the leaves high and prevent excess water loss. Make sure the pot is in a bright spot, that it does not overheat, and that the rooting mix is moist but not waterlogged.
  9. Check for roots every two to three weeks.
  10. Acclimate rooted cuttings to warmer, less humid conditions as described for softwood cuttings (Step #8).

Preparing Needled Evergreen Cuttings

Needled evergreens are often propagated as hardwood cuttings. Because they still have leaves (needles), these cuttings are handled in a different manner than hardwood cuttings of deciduous plants.

  1. Use shoot tips only, making the cutting 6-8 inches long.
  2. Remove the needles from the bottom 3-4 inches of the cutting. To reduce water loss, trim the remaining needles so that they just cover the palm of your hand (Figure 7).
  3. Wound the base of the cutting by drawing a knife point down the lower inch of stem on two sides (Figure 8). Cut into the stem but do not split it. Apply rooting hormone to the lower inch of the stem and place about 2 inches of the stem into the rooting mix, making sure that no needles touch the surface of the mix. Firm the mix around it.

The potted cuttings may be placed in an unheated area with a heating element to warm the rooting mix if the area is well lit. If not, cover the pot and cuttings with a plastic bag and place in a warm, brightly lit room, as with deciduous hardwood cuttings. Providing light is essential for successful rooting of these cuttings. Check for roots once a month. It may take three or four months for roots to develop. Acclimate rooted cuttings as described above.

How to Make Specialized Stem Cuttings

Some houseplants can be propagated most easily using these variations of stem cuttings.

Cane

Cane cuttings are used for Dieffenbachia, Dracaena (including corn plant), and other plants with thick stems. The stem, or cane, is cut into segments and placed into rooting mix. New shoots emerge from the buds that are on the cane; roots grow from the portion of the cane in the rooting mix (Figure 9). The initial absence of leaves reduces water loss.

  1. Cut the cane into segments that contain several buds (usually 2-3 inches in length).
  2. Select a healthy bud and place the cane horizontally into the rooting mix so that this bud points up and only the bottom half of the cane is in the rooting mix. The portion of the cane placed in the rooting mix may be treated with rooting hormone.
  3. Alternately, the end of the cane closest to the base of the plant can be treated with rooting hormone. The cutting is then placed into the rooting mix vertically, about 1/2-inch deep (Figure 10).

Leaf-bud

Leaf-bud cuttings use just a small portion of the stem (up to 1 1/2 inches) that contains a single bud and single leaf. The stem portion produces roots, and a new shoot develops from the bud (Figure 11). Treat the stem with rooting hormone, then place in rooting mix so that the bud is below the surface and the leaf is exposed to light. This method is used with grape ivy, geranium, philodendron, English ivy, and the fleshy-leaved peperomias.

 

Since both types of specialized stem cuttings will lose water easily, place the pot in a plastic bag until roots form.

 

How to Make Leaf Cuttings

Some plants can be propagated from just a single leaf. Many of these plants have compressed stems, making it impossible to take stem cuttings. These include African violets, bush-type peperomias, and Sansevieria. Some succulents, such as jade plant and jelly bean plant, can also be propagated from a single leaf.

Leaf Petiole

African violets and bush-type peperomias are propagated from the whole leaf, that is, the blade (the flat part of the leaf) plus the petiole (the leaf stalk). Break off a robust leaf, trim the petiole so it is no more than an inch long, apply rooting hormone, and sink the petiole into the rooting mix. The base of the leaf blade should just touch the mix (Figure 12). Place the pot in a plastic bag in a bright spot. In a few weeks roots will form and new plantlets will develop from these roots. When they are large enough to handle, gently divide them, making sure each plantlet has roots, and plant in individual containers. A single leaf will give rise to several small plantlets (Figure 13).

Leaf Blade

Some succulent plants (for example, jade plant and jelly bean plant) have leaves that lack petioles (Figure 14). These leaves can simply be broken off the stem, the broken end dipped in rooting hormone, and the leaf inserted about 1/3 of its length into rooting mix. Since these plants are very sensitive to excess water, make sure the rooting mix stays damp but DO NOT enclose the pot in a plastic bag. Roots and then new shoots will develop at the base of the leaf and can be separated into individual plantlets (Figure 15). If the leaves rot instead of root, start over with fresh cuttings and media, add vermiculite or perlite to your rooting mix, and water only when the upper 1/4 inch of mix has dried.

Although not a succulent, Rex begonias can also be propagated from just the leaf blade. Two techniques can be used.

Method 1:

With a knife cut the major veins on the underside of the leaf (Figure 16). Dust with rooting hormone. Place the leaf flat onto a bed of rooting mix, underside down. Use small wire hairpins or bent paperclips to hold the leaf firmly against the rooting mix (Figure 17).

Method 2:

Roll up the leaf blade, dip the base in rooting hormone, and insert about 1/3 of the roll into the rooting mix. Place extra mix into the center of the leaf roll to hold it in place (Figure 18). Rolling should break some of the veins, so cutting is not required.

Figure 18: Leaf blade: Rex begonia leaf rolled and stuck in medium

For both methods, enclose the pot in a plastic bag as with softwood cuttings. Check the pot frequently to make sure the veins are in contact with the rooting mix. If the leaf pulls away from the mix, no roots or plantlets will form. Each wound in a major vein will give rise to roots and small plantlets (Figure 19). Transplant each plantlet into a separate pot when large enough to handle (Figure 20).

Leaf Section

Sansevieria, or mother-in-law’s tongue, has long, sword-like leaves attached to a compressed stem. Cut off one of the leaves at its base, then cut it into 2-4 inch segments. Dip the basal end (the end of the segment that was closest to the base of the plant) of each segment in rooting hormone and then insert 1-2 inches into the rooting mix. If the segments are put into the mix upside down, no roots will form. Put the pot in a plastic bag and place in a bright spot. After several weeks, first roots, then shoots, will develop at the base of the cutting (Figure 21). Each new shoot with roots can become a separate plant.

How to Make Root Cuttings

Though very few plants can be propagated from root cuttings (for example, oriental poppy, phlox, and horseradish), the technique is simple and should be tried if you wish to propagate these species. When the plant is dormant, dig it up and cut off robust segments of the root, 2-3 inches long (replant the parent plant). If the roots are thin, lay them horizontally on the rooting mix and cover with 1/2 inch of the damp mix. If the roots are thick, lay them horizontally or place them vertically into the rooting mix, covering them completely. If placing the root vertically, make sure the end of the cutting that was nearest the crown of the plant points up. Put the pot in a plastic bag and place in a bright spot. In several weeks, shoots should emerge from the rooting mix. Keep the pot in the plastic bag until new roots have formed on the shoots.

References:

General:

Hartman, H.T. et al (1997) Plant Propagation: Principles and Practices, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Toogood, Alan, (1999), American Horticulture Society Plant Propagation: The Fully Illustrated Plant-by-Plant Manual of Practical Techniques, AHS.

Heuser, Charles W. (Editor), Richard Bird, Mike Honour, Clive Innes, Jim Arbury (Contributing Authors), (1997) The Complete Book of Plant Propagation, Taunton Press.

Woody plants:

Dirr, M.A. and C.W. Heuser (1987) The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation, Varsity Press, Inc. Athens GA.

Perennials:

Jim Nau, (1996), Ball Perennial Manual; Propagation and Production, Ball Publishing.

Houseplants:

Heuser, Charles W. (Editor), Richard Bird, Mike Honour, Clive Innes, Jim Arbury (Contributing Authors), (1997) The Complete Book of Plant Propagation, Taunton Press.

Jantra, I. and Kruger, U. (1997), The Houseplant Encyclopedia, Firefly Books, Inc. Buffalo, New York.

Related extension bulletins from other states:

North Carolina:

Plant Propagation by Leaf, Cane, and Root Cuttings: Instructions for the Home Gardener
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-8700.html

Plant Propagation by Stem Cuttings: Instructions for the Home Gardener
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-8702.html

Nebraska:

Propagating House Plants
http://www.ianr.unl.edu/pubs/horticulture/g337.htm

Arizona:

Plant Propagation: Asexual Propagation
http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/propagation/asexual.html

Kentucky:

Propagating Plants in and around the Home
http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ho/ho67/ho67.pdf

*Janie Nordstrom Griffiths assisted in the preparation of this publication.

For more information on the subject discussed in this publication, consult your local office of the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.

Note: Due to the large size of this publication when graphics are included, it is available in two different formats. A PDF version, which is more printer-friendly, can be found at HO-37 (TEXT)  and HO-37  (graphic figures). This html version incorporates the figures into the text, but is not as printer-friendly.

Источник: https://www.purdue.edu/hla/sites/yardandgarden/extpub/new-plants-from-cuttings-text-only/

Rooting for You Songtext
von London Grammar

Rooting for You Songtext

Let winter break
Let it burn 'til I see you again
I will be here with you
Just like I told you I would
I'd love to always love you
But I'm scared of loneliness
When I'm, when I'm alone with you


I know it's hard
Only you and I
Is it all for me?
Because I know it's all for you
And I guess, I guess
It is only, you are the only thing I've ever truly known
So, I hesitate, if I can act the same for you
And my darlin', I'll be rooting for you
And my darlin', I'll be rooting for you

And where did she go?
Truth left us long ago
And I need her tonight because I'm scared of loneliness with you
And I should let it go
But all that is left is my perspective, broken and so left behind again

I know it's hard
Only you and I
Is it all for me?
Because I know it's all for you
And I guess, I guess
It is only, you are the only thing I've ever truly known
So, I hesitate, if I can act the same for you
And my darlin', I'll be rooting for you
And my darlin', I'll be rooting for you

Writer(s): HANNAH FELICITY MAY REID, DANIEL HARRY JOSEPH ROTHMAN, DOMINIC ASHLEY RONALD MAJOR Lyrics powered by www.musixmatch.com

Songtext lizenziert von musiXmatch
Источник: https://www.songtexte.com/songtext/london-grammar/rooting-for-you-gbdcb14a.html

Im Rooting For You

Tenor
I'M Rooting For You GIF - Bandwagon Bandwagon Fans Sportsbandwagon GIFs
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Believe You Got This GIF - Believe You Got This Maddy Shine GIFs
Patrick Smile GIF - Patrick Smile Cheer GIFs
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Im Rooting For You Cheering GIF - Im Rooting For You Cheering Cheers GIFs
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Tyra Banks Rooting For You GIF - Tyra Banks Rooting For You Mad GIFs
Proud Of You GIF - Adam Levine The Voice Clapping GIFs
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Good Luck Beca GIF - Good Luck Beca Anna Kendrick GIFs
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I Was Rooting For You! We Were All Rooting For You! - America'S Next Top Model GIF - Antm Tyra Banks Rooting GIFs
Glee Rachel Berry GIF - Glee Rachel Berry Break A Leg GIFs
Young Fans Fortaleza Vs Santa Cruz GIF - Young Fans Fortaleza Vs Santa Cruz Supporters GIFs
Taylor Swift Yay GIF - Taylor Swift Yay Woo GIFs
Issa Rae Rooting For Everybody Black GIF - Issa Rae Rooting For Everybody Black Talking GIFs
Источник: https://tenor.com/search/im-rooting-for-you-gifs

Sayings in English are some of the best ways to show a deeper understanding of the native language. If you get your head around them early, people will be blown away by your grasp and language skills! So, let’s look at the coming saying “rooting for you,” where it came from, and what it means!

What Is The Meaning Of “Rooting For You”?

The meaning of “rooting for you” is generally that you’re supporting somebody for a task or activity. There are three main ways to say “rooting for you” that’ll work in a context. The first is when you’re in a position to influence an outcome (i.e., to tell someone you’ll back them in a vote). The second is when you are a spectator with no direct impact on the outcome (i.e., cheer someone on for a sporting event). The third is when you’re away from the action entirely but still encouraging someone (i.e., if they’re sick in hospital and you send your prayers).

Remember those three meanings, as we’ll be using them a little more later when we get to the synonyms section! It helps to understand what each meaning can mean!

What Is The Origin Of “Rooting For You”?

Okay, so we’ve covered the meaning, but what exactly is the rooting for you origin? Well, it’s unclear exactly where the word comes from, though “root” is a verb that means to give someone encouragement (usually audibly). Of course, it can also relate to plants and planting flowers, but we’re ignoring that case in this matter. We’ll focus on that word. However, where did the verb “root” come from?

It’s believed that the word originated from the term “rout,” which was first known in the 14th-century. The term actually relates to herding cattle and means “to bellow” or “make a loud noise.” “Rout” is a play on the more familiar word “hoot,” a loud noise often announced by a bird like an owl. Of course, with other origins associated with sayings, no one knows the exact direct cause of the saying.

However, it has become very prominent in recent times and is most commonly used when someone is encouraging someone else for a sporting event or triumph of some kind. When you get behind a person to cheer them on, you’ll always be rooting for them, which has stuck over the years and is still common today.

10 Examples Of How To Use “Rooting For You.”

Now that we’ve seen where it came from and what it means, it’s time to look at some common examples of how it’s used. With these examples, you’ll see how it can be written in a sentence. From there, you’ll be able to start using the sentence yourself (hopefully) and really show you’ve got a masterful grasp on the language and the sayings! It’s a lot of fun to learn, and it’s a perfect saying to have ready for your friends and family.

  • Good luck, Matt. I’m rooting for you.
  • I am rooting for you to win this competition.
  • We were all rooting for you, and we knew you could do it.
  • I was rooting for you since day one.
  • I’ll always be rooting for you.
  • She’s rooting for you because she loves you.
  • I’m rooting for you to get through this.
  • You’re so strong; we’re all rooting for you.
  • We’ll never stop rooting for you.
  • I knew you could do it; I was rooting for you.

As you can see, in all of these examples, something is always happening that requires you to support someone else. Whether it’s implied from the context, most of these sentences seem to show an obstacle that a person is about to overcome, and you are saying “rooting for you” to help them get over that obstacle without any worry.

“Rooting For You” Synonyms

One of the best ways to learn even more about sayings and the language is to look at some appropriate synonyms to replace them. This way, you’ll not only have more sayings available to you that make you sound even more impressive, but you’ll also have a better understanding of exactly what “rooting for you” means by comparing it to the similar meanings of the synonyms listed here.

This first one is mostly reserved for the second way to use “rooting for you” (when you’re a spectator with no overall impact on the outcome of an event). We say we’re cheering for someone when we’re encouraging them to do well but don’t have any way of helping them perform better rather than our own voice.

This one works as a replacement for all three ways to say “rooting for you.” Whether you impact the outcome or not, you can say you’re supporting someone quite easily. However, it doesn’t have the same level of encouragement as some of the other synonyms here, so we don’t often say it.

This is another good one to use if you don’t have an impact on the direct result. You can say you’re right behind someone to remind them that you’ll always support them through the endeavor. It’s a good way to encourage someone as long as they keep it in mind throughout their challenge.

We use “believe in you” in much the same way as “rooting for you.” It is more useful when we don’t directly impact the result of an event, as we believe that the person will do well in it. This is one of the more common synonyms in this list which you might hear a lot while learning it.

Finally, we use this synonym most often in the last meaning of “rooting for you,” where we are away from the action. We remind people that we’re “here for them” when they need help through a stuff spot in their life or need some faith getting over an injury or an illness. It’s a kind saying that is used to make people feel better.

Источник: https://grammarhow.com/rooting-for-you/

Sayings in English are some of the best ways to show a deeper understanding of the native language. If you get your head around them early, people will numero banco wells fargo blown away by your grasp and language skills! So, let’s look at the coming saying “rooting for you,” where it came from, and what it means!

What Is The Meaning Of “Rooting For You”?

The meaning of “rooting for you” is generally that you’re supporting somebody for a task or activity. There are three main ways to say “rooting for you” that’ll work in a context. The first is when you’re in a position to influence an outcome (i.e., to tell someone you’ll back them in a vote). The second is when you are a spectator with no direct impact on the outcome (i.e., cheer someone on for a sporting event). The third is when you’re away from the action entirely but still encouraging someone (i.e., if they’re sick in hospital and take me to the nearest in n out send your prayers).

Remember those three meanings, as we’ll be using them a little more later when we get to the synonyms section! It helps to understand what each meaning can mean!

What Is The Origin Of “Rooting For You”?

Okay, so we’ve covered the meaning, but what exactly is the rooting for you origin? Well, it’s unclear exactly where the word comes from, though “root” is a verb that means to give someone encouragement (usually audibly). Of course, it can also relate to plants and planting flowers, but we’re ignoring that case in this matter. We’ll focus on that word. However, where did the verb “root” rooting for you meaning from?

It’s believed that the word originated from the term “rout,” which was first known in the 14th-century. The term actually relates to herding cattle and means “to bellow” or “make a loud noise.” “Rout” is a play on the more familiar word “hoot,” a loud noise often announced by a bird like an owl. Of course, with other origins associated with sayings, no one knows the exact direct cause of the saying.

However, it has become very prominent in recent times and is most commonly used when someone is encouraging someone else for a sporting event or triumph of some kind. When you get behind a person to cheer them on, you’ll always be rooting for them, which has stuck over the years and is still common today.

10 Examples Of How To Use “Rooting For You.”

Now that we’ve seen where it came from and what it means, it’s time to look at some common examples of how it’s used. With these examples, you’ll see how it can be written in a sentence. From there, you’ll be able to start using the sentence yourself (hopefully) and really show you’ve got a masterful grasp on the language and the sayings! It’s a lot of fun to learn, and it’s a perfect saying to have ready for your friends and family.

  • Good luck, Matt. I’m rooting for you.
  • I am rooting for you to win this competition.
  • We were all rooting for you, and we knew you could do it.
  • I was rooting for you since day one.
  • I’ll always be rooting for you.
  • She’s rooting for you because she loves you.
  • I’m rooting for you to get through this.
  • You’re so strong; we’re all rooting for you.
  • We’ll never stop rooting for you.
  • I knew you could do it; I was rooting for you.

As you can see, in all of these examples, something is always happening that requires you to support someone else. Whether it’s implied from the context, most of these sentences seem to show an obstacle that a person is about to overcome, and you are saying “rooting for you” to help them get over that obstacle without any worry.

“Rooting For You” Synonyms

One of the best ways to learn even more about sayings and the language is to look at some appropriate synonyms to replace them. This way, you’ll not only have more sayings available to you that make you sound even more impressive, but you’ll also have a better understanding of exactly what “rooting for you” means by comparing it to the similar meanings of the synonyms listed here.

This first one is mostly reserved for the second way to use “rooting for you” (when you’re a spectator with no overall impact on the outcome of an event). We say we’re cheering for someone when we’re encouraging them to rooting for you meaning well but don’t have any way of helping them perform better rather than our own voice.

This one works as a replacement for all three ways to say “rooting for you.” Whether you impact the outcome or not, you can say you’re supporting someone quite easily. However, it doesn’t have the same level of encouragement as some of the other synonyms here, so we don’t often say it.

This is another good one to use if you don’t have an impact on the direct result. You can say you’re right behind someone to remind them that you’ll always support them through the endeavor. It’s a good way to encourage someone as long as they keep it in mind throughout their challenge.

We use “believe in you” in much the same way as “rooting for you.” It is more useful when we don’t directly impact the result of an event, as we believe that the person will do well in it. This is one of the more common synonyms in this list which you might hear a lot while learning it.

Finally, we use this synonym most often in the last meaning of “rooting for you,” where we are away from the action. We remind people that we’re “here for them” when they need help through a stuff spot in their life or need some faith getting over an injury or an illness. It’s a kind saying that is used to make people feel better.

Источник: https://grammarhow.com/rooting-for-you/
nexus-5-developer-7447.jpg

Rooting is the Android equivalent of jailbreaking, a means of unlocking the operating system so you can install unapproved apps, deleted unwanted bloatware, update the OS, replace the firmware, overclock (or underclock) the processor, customize anything and so on.

Of course, for the average user, this sounds like -- and can be -- a scary process. After all, "rooting" around in synchrony credit amazon card smartphone's core software might seem like a recipe for disaster. One wrong move and you could end up with bricked handset.

Thankfully, there's a utility that makes rooting a one-click affair: KingoRoot. It's free and it works -- though not with all devices.

I originally tested Kingo on a Virgin Mobile Supreme and Asus Nexus 7; the process proved quick and easy. More recently, I used it to root a OnePlus One, and this time it was even easier -- because an app did all the work.

However, I couldn't get the utility to work on a Verizon Samsung Galaxy S6. Your mileage rooting for you meaning vary, of course, and I definitely recommend checking the compatibility list before proceeding. (Even if your device isn't on it, the utility may work with it.) Here's how to get started.

The app version

The easiest way to use KingoRoot is to install the app version, which literally performs the root process with just one tap.

In fact, the only complicated part is actually getting that app onto your Android device. That's because it's not available in the Google Play Store; instead, you must download the KingoRoot APK and manually install it.

kingoroot-android-with-border.jpg

Ideally, you'll just point your device's mobile to the KingoRoot Android page and download it directly. If that doesn't work for some reason, or you're working from your PC, download the APK and email it to yourself as an attachment. Then, on your device, open that e-mail and download that attachment.

To install it, however, you'll need to make sure your device is set to allow apps from unknown sources. In most versions of Android, that goes like this: Head to Settings, tap Security, scroll down to Unknown Sources and toggle the switch to the on position.

Now you can install KingoRoot. Then run the app, tap One Click Root, and cross your fingers. If all goes well, your device should be rooted within about 60 seconds. (On my aforementioned Galaxy S6, the process made it to 90 percent, then the phone crashed and rebooted. Luckily, no harm done.)

The desktop version

Kingo's support pages suggested I might have better luck with the Galaxy S6 if I tried the Windows version of KingoRoot. Here's that process:

kingo-root-no-adware.jpg

Step 1: Download and install KingoRoot for Windows, making sure to leave unchecked the option to "Install Yahoo powered Chromium browser" and then click Decline to prevent any other adware incursions.

Step 2: Enable USB debugging mode on your phone. If it's running Android 4.0 or 4.1, tap Settings, Developer Options, then tick the box for "USB debugging." (You may need to switch "Developer options" to On before you can do so.) On Android 4.2, tap Settings, About Phone, Developer Options, and then tick USB debugging." Then tap OK to approve the setting change.

On Android 4.3 and later (including 5.0, though this also applies to some versions of 4.2), tap Settings, About Phone, then scroll down to Build Number. Tap it seven times, at which point you should see the message, "You are now a developer!"

With that done, tap Settings, About Phone, Developer Options, and then tick Rooting for you meaning debugging." Then tap OK to approve the setting change.

Step 3: Run Android Root on your PC, then connect your phone via its USB sync cable. After a moment, the former should show a connection to the latter. Your device screen may show an "Allow USB debugging?" pop-up. Tick "Always allow from this computer," then tap OK.

Step 4: Click Root, then sit back and wait while the utility does its thing. After a few minutes, my Galaxy S6 got to 70 percent, and then the phone once again crashed and rebooted. Again, your mileage can (and most likely will) vary.

And that's all there is to it. If you decide you want to reverse the process, just run Android Root again, connect your phone, then click Remove Root. (Same goes for the app version, more or less.)

Now, what should you do with your rooted phone? Hit the comments to share your favorite options.

Editor's note: This how-to was originally published on June 10, 2014 and has since been updated to reflect new ways to root your device.

Источник: https://www.cnet.com/tech/services-and-software/how-to-easily-root-an-android-device/

Companies allowing employees to bring their own device (BYOD) for work purposes are toeing a fine line: providing workers with the ability to use a smartphone or tablet they’re most fidget toys walmart with, but also subjecting the enterprise’s data to potential security risks.

One issue keeping digital security and IT managers awake at night is smartphone rooting.

What is smartphone rooting?

Rooting phones, no matter what the operating system, usually means discovering a bug of some sort that allows you to bypass internal protections and gain complete control over the operating amazon com prime day — to become the “root” user, who has all privileges and all access. Rooting is sometimes called “jailbreaking,” as it lets the user break out of the constraints of the operating system.

In the Android ecosystem, since the platform is based upon Linux permissions and file-system ownership, rooting means gaining “superuser” access. Rooting is generally carried out using Android SDK tools to unlock the bootloader and then flash a custom image to the device. Some third-party applications may offer to root your device for you, but users should be particularly cautious of these as they have the potential to introduce malware or other security loopholes.

Not everyone rooting a phone breaks in by finding a bug. Android phones sold for development purposes, for example, may allow rooting to help in the testing and debugging process.

It’s also important to note that rooting is different from unlocking a phone. In the U.S. especially, phones are often sold with 1st state bank nebraska subsidy provided by a telecom carrier. To help enforce the contract terms, phones may be configured by the carrier so they can only be used on certain networks. Disabling these controls is called “unlocking” the phone, but this does not involve gaining superuser permissions.

Why do people root their phones?

People root smartphones for many reasons. They may want to install a specific application, change certain settings, or just don’t like being told what they can and can’t do with their phone.

In the early years of Android smartphones, rooting was popular among tech enthusiasts as a way to strip back user interface customizations made by manufacturers to the Android platform. In other instances, the motivation has been to remove preloaded applications.

How can you tell if a phone is rooted?

Users who are uncertain if their phone has been rooted have several ways to check.

The presence of a Kinguser or Superuser application on the device is an obvious sign the device has been rooted. These applications are typically installed as part of the rooting process to allow access to superuser privileges. Users can also download a root checker app or a terminal client to determine if superuser access is configured.

With Samsung’s Android devices featuring Samsung Knox, the user can simply go into Settings and tap “About Phone” to review the software versions on their device. Any irregularities in the software will be noted.

Is rooting your smartphone a security risk?

Rooting disables some of the built-in security features of the operating system, and those security features are part of what keeps the operating system safe and your data secure from exposure or corruption. Since today’s smartphones operate in an environment filled with threats from attackers, buggy or malicious applications, as well as occasional accidental missteps by trusted users, anything that reduces the internal controls in the Android operating system represents a higher risk.

Quantifying that increased level of risk is hard, because it depends on how the phone was rooted and what happens next. If a user roots their smartphone and doesn’t do anything outside of normal day-to-day usage, it becomes difficult to point and say, “This is a big security problem.” But if a rooted phone stops checking for software updates and security patches (or cannot install them because the kernel is no longer signed properly), then even a phone used in a very normal way slowly turns into a ticking time bomb running old software and applications.

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On the other hand, IT managers know that many users root their phones and then engage in unsafe behaviors, such as installing pirated applications or malware — even unintentionally. In that case, the security risk rises quickly.

A rooted smartphone — especially one that doesn’t get updated — creates a security problem that gets worse over time. Similarly, some of the important security features of smartphones, such as Samsung’s Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), can be disabled when a smartphone is rooted. Then, applications dependent on the security of TEE for encryption key storage or home/work partitions, for example, either stop functioning entirely or are no longer secure, and that’s why most IT managers strongly discourage rooting phones.

Should rooted smartphones be used for work?

Rooting a smartphone changes the fundamental security posture of the device, and this generally makes the device unsuitable for work use, exposing enterprise data and applications to new threats.

Many acceptable use policies (AUPs) explicitly state that rooted devices are not allowed to access corporate networks, applications and data. As discussed in more detail below, IT admins may also use rooting or jailbreak detection capabilities within their mobile device management (MDM) solution to red-flag any compromised devices enrolled. Even if these policies and protections are not in place, users who are aware their device is rooted should think twice before using that phone for business purposes.

What should IT managers do?

First, make it hard for people to root phones. Pick a business-focused phone that has hardware protections that make booting of untrusted code somewhere between difficult and impossible. For example, Samsung’s phones with the built-in Knox platform and TEE, including Galaxy Z Fold3 and Galaxy Z Flip3, use a combination of hardware and firmware to keep untrusted operating systems from loading by verifying a digital signature on each part of the operating system as it’s loaded into memory. If the software is not digitally signed by someone in Samsung’s chain of trust, then the phone won’t load the software at all. The digital signature guarantees, with cryptographic assurance, that the operating system software being loaded has not been modified. That eliminates one favorite technique for rooting phones.

Samsung Knox also has rollback protection as part of the trusted boot process. Another favorite rooting technique is to load an older version of the Android operating system with an old bug that makes it easy to root the phone. With Knox-integrated phones, though, once a new version of the operating system has been loaded, it can set a minimum version number in the TEE, and the smartphone rooting for you meaning detect if the operating system meets the minimum requirement.

Depending on where the device is in the boot process, it will either refuse to load older, buggier versions of the operating system, or in some cases, it will boot up but clear out the secure area in the TEE, which has decryption keys in it, effectively wiping the phone’s data storage. Rollback protection is a one-way street — no amount of factory resetting the phone will clear this information out, so once a phone has been patched and the rollback protection updated, it can’t rooting for you meaning unpatched by someone trying to root rooting for you meaning, after making it harder to root phones, IT managers should actively detect rooted devices, typically using their MDM, enterprise mobility management (EMM) belk online order customer service unified endpoint management (UEM) console. This service helps by providing reporting on device software versions, and any back-tracking of a smartphone to an earlier version should stand out and cause the MDM/EMM to log a security event. Upon detection of rooting, the admin can choose to have MDM automatically lock the user out of the device, wipe all enterprise data or restrict access.

More advanced phones can also report back to the MDM/EMM on periodic real-time checks on rooting for you meaning integrity of the operating system. For example, in Samsung’s phones with Knox, IT managers can take advantage of Realtime Kernel Protection (RKP) and Periodic Kernel Measurement (PKM) to detect and block kernel tampering at run time.

IT managers can’t convince people not to root their smartphones. But they can make it harder for those devices to be used in the enterprise, and they can better detect policy violations. All it takes is the right hardware, the right software and a keen eye.

Learn more about how Samsung Knox protects every component of Galaxy devices from the chip up. What happens when an employee’s smartphone leads to a security incident? Find out how to protect yourself with an incident response plan in this free white paper.

Источник: https://insights.samsung.com/2021/10/29/what-are-the-security-risks-of-rooting-your-smartphone-3/

What Is Rooting Reflex?

The rooting reflex allows a newborn baby to find your breast or a bottle to begin feeding. It’s one of several reflexes, or involuntary movements, that babies are born with which help them through their first weeks or months of life.

A newborn may rely on the rooting reflex for the first few months of life, but by about 3 weeks, most newborns will turn their heads naturally and be able to move their head into position to start sucking. By 4 months, rooting is usually a voluntary action rather than a reflex.

The rooting reflex happens when the corner of a baby’s mouth touches the skin or nipple. You can also trigger would you rather game for kids online reflex by stroking or gently touching the corner of a baby’s mouth. A baby will then reflexively turn their head to follow and “root” in that direction.

Read on to learn more about the rooting reflex and how it helps babies to feed.

When does call bb rooting reflex develop?

A baby is born with a set of reflexes that they develop in the womb. The rooting reflex, which helps a baby to find their mother’s breast, is one such reflex. The sucking reflex, which is also used for feeding, is another reflex that develops in the womb.

Some babies have a strong set of reflexes, while others may take longer to develop their reflexes, or they may need help to develop them.

Babies who are born very prematurely (before 28 weeks) may not yet have their rooting reflex. A rooting reflex usually starts to develop around 28 to 30 weeks. A premature baby may start sucking before this time, but be unable to find your breast.

If your baby has not developed their rooting reflex, you can hand express milk for them or guide their mouth to your nipple until they’re able to find the nipple on their own.

In some cases, a premature baby may need to be fed intravenously, or via a feeding tube, or by finger feeding in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Doctors and nurses at the hospital will help you develop 1st community credit union sparta wi plan for feeding your baby until they’re ready to breastfeed on their own.

Babies that are bottle fed have a rooting reflex even though they don’t need to find your nipple. When feeding a bottle-fed baby, they may initially turn their head from side to side in search of a nipple. You can stroke or touch their cheek to get them to turn toward a bottle or to know that it’s time to eat.

How is the rooting reflex different from the sucking reflex?

The sucking reflex is different from the rooting reflex. The two serve different purposes, but both are important for allowing your baby to eat.

The rooting reflex happens first, allowing your baby to reflexively find your breast or a bottle nipple. The sucking reflex kicks in when the roof of a newborn’s mouth is touched. When this area is stimulated, your baby will begin to “suck” or drink. For example, when you place your nipple or a bottle nipple in your baby’s mouth, they automatically start sucking because of the sucking reflex.

When to seek help

Some babies are able to naturally start breastfeeding right away. Others may need a bit of help with their latch, or their rooting or sucking reflexes.

You can test your baby’s rooting reflex by gently stroking their cheek or mouth. They should turn their head in response to the touch, or look like they’re “rooting” from side to side.

If you’re concerned your baby isn’t rooting properly, talk to their pediatrician. The pediatrician may recommend a lactation consultant to help address any issues that arise with breastfeeding.

If you’re concerned your baby isn’t getting enough to eat, remember that in the first few days of life, newborns don’t need a lot of breastmilk or formula per feeding because their stomachs are very small. You’ll want to feed them frequently, though, especially if you’re breastfeeding. Frequent nursing can help your milk to come in.

Your baby’s diapers are your best way to confirm that they’re getting enough milk. After day 3, breastfed babies typically have about three wet diapers per day, and by day 5, about 5 or more wet diapers per day. The wet diapers will get heavier and may be more frequent as your baby grows.

Talk to your baby’s pediatrician if you’re concerned about the number of wet or dirty diapers, or if your baby isn’t gaining weight. The pediatrician may recommend a lactation consultant to address any issues with breastfeeding. community 1st credit union hours you’re having trouble breastfeeding, the following tips may help:

  • Feed on demand, not on a schedule, or however often your pediatrician recommends.
  • Try hand expressing or pumping milk if your baby is feeding frequently but not gaining weight, which may help until your milk supply fully comes in.
  • Make sure you’re eating enough healthy, calorie-rich meals while breastfeeding.

When do baby reflexes develop?

Babies are born with a number of reflexes that they develop in the womb, several of which help them survive the first weeks of life. Some of those reflexes are listed below.

The takeaway

A newborn’s reflexes are like their own personal tour guide to help them survive the first few weeks of life. The rooting reflex is important because it helps them to find a breast or bottle nipple, and be able to feed.

Not all babies get the hang of breastfeeding right away. If you’re concerned about your little one’s reflexes or that they aren’t latching, rooting, or sucking well, talk to your pediatrician or a lactation consultant. They can offer help and guidance.

Источник: https://www.healthline.com/health/parenting/rooting-reflex

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Источник: https://tenor.com/search/im-rooting-for-you-gifs

How to Use Rooting Hormone When Propagating Plants

If you want beautiful, full, diverse planters without the hefty price tag, you may consider propagating your plants. Propagation is the process of growing new plants from clippings of existing plants. While it's a fairly simple process requiring little more than soil and sunlight, some may want to help Mother Nature rooting for you meaning with a rooting hormone. Here's what you need to know about the technique.

RELATED: PROPAGATE PLANTS LIKE A PRO WITH THIS COUNTERTOP INCUBATOR

What Is Rooting Hormone?

Just as hormones regulate processes in the human body, plants have hormones that help govern their growth and development. Chemicals known as auxins inform plants when to form roots. Rooting hormone products, which are commonly sold in powder, liquid, and gel form, contain natural auxins or synthetic compounds, which can be applied to clippings to stimulate root growth during propagation.

RELATED: LEARN HOW TO PROPAGATE SUCCULENTS

Do Your Plants Need It?

Not exactly. Plants propagate naturally, and if given the proper conditions and care, cuttings will sprout roots using their own hormones. However, some people choose to use rooting hormones to speed up the process, or for plants that have proven difficult to propagate in the past. "It's a personal choice," says Nadine Kremblas, usaa bank 24 hour customer service Living Arts Lead at Pistils Nursery, a specialty plant shop in Portland, Oregon. "Rooting hormone can help yield better results, but it's not necessary."

Plants that easily propagate, such as most varieties of succulents, rarely need the jumpstart that a rooting hormone can deliver. However, plants that are more reluctant to root, such as citrus plants, can benefit from it.

RELATED: THIS IS HOW TO TAKE BETTER CARE OF YOUR PLANTS

How Do You Use Rooting Hormone?

Hormones are powerful chemicals, and if used incorrectly can kill clippings and plants. With many different concentrations of rooting hormone available, it's important to carefully read the product's packaging to ensure that the formula is appropriate for your plant. During propagation, rooting hormone should be applied immediately before you place your clipping in the soil.

For powdered hormones, dip the base of the cutting into the hormone, then shake gently to remove any excess. Place the cutting into moist soil, loosely covering the base. For liquid and gel hormones, first indigo credit card customer service phone the package to see if it's a ready-to-go us bank travel card or a concentrate. If concentrated, dilute the product with water according to the directions. Once your hormone is ready, dip the base of your clipping into the liquid or gel, leaving submerged for only a couple seconds-too long can damage the plant. Plant the cutting as you would using a powdered hormone.

Remember that rooting rooting for you meaning should be used only during propagation. Feeding a mature plant hormones can damage the root system. Rooting hormone should be stored in a cool, dark access online login. Check the expiration date before using, as the chemicals can break down over time.

Feeling Inspired: Martha Shows Us How to Use a Rooting Hormone in the Video Below

Источник: https://www.marthastewart.com/1535873/how-to-use-rooting-hormone

watch the thematic video

Sara Kays - Rooting For You (Demo)

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